Essay on Child Psych

Submitted By Divine7060
Words: 798
Pages: 4

Child Psychology
Chapter 3

Prenatal Development and Birth
Child development
Stages of Prenatal Development (chpt. 3)
3 main stages :
1. Zygote = 1st stage, involves times from fertilization to implantation
2. Embryo= developing organism from 2-8 wks. structures include beginning of CNS, limb buds, and face
3. Fetus = stage from 9 wks-birth (apporx. 38 wks) period of fine-tuning brain, body systems

Risks in prenatal environment

Maternal factors
Environment factors
Age younger mother vs. older mother

- illegal drugs

Diet poor diet assoc. w/ numerous adverse consequences


Emotional state increased stress assoc. w/ miscarriages, still birth, low birth weight

- lead, radiation

Diseases and disorders high BP, Rh compatibility STD’s

Teratogens environmental substances = produce serious defects in developing organism humans = susceptible exposure during embryonic period intensity, length = exposure linked directly to serious side effects

Examples of Teratogens
1. legal drugs (caffeine, nicotine, alcohol)
2. Illegal drugs( cocaine, heroine)
3. Meds. (Thalidomide, aspirin)
4. Environmental toxins (lead, radiation)

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome microcephally short palpebral fissures epicanthal flat mid face indistinct philtrum (no wrinkle above mouth) thin upper lip low nasal bridge minor ear abnormalities short nose micrognathia some motor impairment

Complications following birth
1. Anoxia = may result in severe brain damage or death
Apgar = scale is used to evaluate new born condition
Assessment = includes heart rates, respiration, muscle tone, reflex, color
2. Prematurity and low birth weight = assoc. w/ develop. Delays motor cognitive intellectual ability
3. Research = focused on stimulating the preemie’s environment

Chpt. 5
The Childs growth brain body motor skills and sexual maturation

Brain development in infancy find pic of neuron
Brain cells = neurons pg 168
Dendrites = receive inputs from neighbors (signals are + or -) cell body = nucleus, mitchrondria, summation adds + and – together, tells it to fire axon = boxes acts as insulation (myelin) (allows signal to jump to diff. spaces) speeds up toward terminal button electrical signals = action potential axons (won’t stop, won’t change size) di-myelation diseases terminal button = holds chemical messenger (circles hold neuroep. Dopamine, etc)
*****Developmental mental changes in neurons and synapses
100-200 billion neurons at birth several process suicide development synapses (terminal button) = space b/w the terminal button of one neuron and another neuronal death = programmed cell death (some programmed to die b/c interfering, taking up space) synaptic pruning = want fine tuning b/w synaptic connections, not using them needs to clear off.
Don’t want over pruning (cuz Alzheimers)
1. Neuronal migration and synaptogenesis (formation of synapses) = movement of neurons designated areas and the formation of new synapses (process of migration and synaptogenesis)
2. Neuronal death programmed cell death; loss of neurons surrounding an axon / dendrite connection
3. synaptic pruning = “don’t use, lose”; loss of axons and dendrites

Stages of Brain development pg. 165
1. initial development begins with “ old brain”, brain stem , spinal cord and lower brain structures (neural tube)
2. After birth rapid development of the cortical (brain wrinkles) regions – motor, parietal auditory and visual (follows behavioral development)

Cerebral Cortex
Cerebral hemispheres = left , right
Cortex = shower caps that lays over left and right cerebral cortex
Divided into 4 lobs:
1. Frontal houses the primary motor cortex (voluntary movements)
Important for judgment, planning, impulse control (schizo., tension deficient hyper-activity disorder)
2. Parietal