Q1. Describe the expected stage of social development of children :-
D1:- Four-year-olds approach the world with great curiosity and use their imaginations to help understand it. Hands-on explorations help them to separate reality from fantasy. By this age they are expected to be aware of the fact they are either male or female and should have the ability to make friends or be interested in making friends. They are generally subservient to their parent or caregivers requests and need comfort and reassurance from adults. Their Moods change rapidly and unpredictably; laughing one minute, crying the next; and may throw a tantrum over minor frustrations, and sulk over being left out. They may often appear selfish; not always able to take turns or to understand taking turns under some conditions. They will often ‘tattle’ on other children. By now they are more capable of pretending and become easily afraid of things, such as the dark, as they have a strong imagination. Four-year-olds feel good about the things they can do, show self-confidence, and are willing to try new adventures.
D2:- “Five-year-olds are cheerful, energetic, and enthusiastic. They enjoy planning, and spend a great deal of time discussing who will do what”. At this stage they are now able to form close friendships with other children and will now choose who they want to play with. They have learnt to share and take turns when doing an activity e.g. when drawing or sharing pencil crayons. They have developed manners by saying please and thank you for things such as when offered something to eat or drink. Five year olds will show kindness to other children by inviting them to play and being helpful. They start using words and actions that imitate the adults around them, and will often play with children of their own gender as they begin to understand gender roles. Your five-year-old is becoming more independent and in control of his behaviour. There will be fewer arguments and few tantrums, if any. He’s beginning to understand what it means to be fair and to follow rules in a game. But you can still expect that it might be too much to cope with sometimes, so he might cheat, get upset or not want to play every once in a while.
D3:- A suitable way of observing and recording a 5 year olds social development is to set time aside from interacting with the children in order to watch their play with the activity and with one another. Taking notes on the behaviour can be done by using a check-list of things to look out for and marking these with a tick when the behaviour is seen.
D4:- One advantage of using a check list when observing children is that the same chart can be used at different times to assess a childs developing skills. A disadvantage is that the range of observations to be marked on the list can be quite narrow and restrictive as it focuses attention only on the skills listed in the checklist.
B2:- A knowledge of the development skills within each age group gives an observer an idea of what to look for while the children are doing an activity or playing. Observing a child helps the carer to adapt activities to help the children based on knowledge of their needs. Patterns in play and interests can be used to support new learning opportunities. Observations are used to help you plan for the activities that you are going to do with the children. For example, if you observe that a child is able to thread beads on a string by herself, but needs help to tie the string to make a bracelet from an adult, a good outcome for this observation of the little girls good manipulation skills, would be to show the child how to make a knot and finish the bracelet herself.
A1:- Children’s development, both physical (gross motor skills and fine motor skills) intellectual and emotional , follow normal patterns of growth which can be measured to assess a childs abilities against other children of the same age range, these are called…