Childhood Development Essay

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How a Child Develops from Infancy to Middle Childhood
Wendi Fisher
Psych 600
April 15, 2013
Dr. Tera

How a Child Develops from Infancy to Middle Childhood
From the time a mother conceives to age three a child’s brain develops nearly 90% of its adult size. In the womb brain develops basic skills such as heartbeat, breathing, and sleeping. As the synapse increase the child will develop the part of the brain that regulates motion, language, and independent thought. The more stimulation infants receive, the more the brain gears to learn. Babies are born without myelin, which is a tissue that covers brain cells, without this insulation the brain receives the information slower. A child’s life experiences help to determine the rate the myelin grows (Logan, 2011). The development of children is set in different stages. The stages start at infancy, toddlers, and young children. Development covers physical changes, social skills, cognitive learning, communication, and adaptive skills.
Infants Development
During infancy children soak up as much information as he or she can. In infancy both male and female children grow at the same rate. In the womb infants learn the skills, he or she needs to survive outside the mother. The first few months of an infant’s life he or she develops the five senses (Tromley, 2010). A child will watch everything that goes on around him or her. He or she will learn to focus eyesight on objects, learn voices, and facial expressions. This will be the first type of communication an infant will have. At about four to six months the infant will learn physical skills such as rolling over, sitting up, and crawling. At about 12 months an infant will develop the skills needed to walk, say words like mommy, dada, cat, and dog. He or she will also learn how to drink out of a Sippy cup. Some children will meet these milestones faster than others. However, the more interaction a parent has with a child, the faster he or she learns these skills.
Toddler Development
Toddlers between the ages of 18 month to three learn physical skills such as running, climbing, and holding crayons. He or she will love toys that encourage pushing and pulling too. The brain will develop the skill to use words in a sentence. By the time the child is 24 months, he or she will be able to lean over without falling and also climb stairs. Physically a child will learn the eye hand coordination to put pieces of a puzzle together with assistance. He or she will learn how to throw and kick a ball. A toddler will go through the ego stage. Here the toddler will learn to feed him or herself, potty train, and thrive for independence (Sheridan, 2010).

Preschool Development
By the time a child hits the preschool age the child will have developed the physical ability to catch a ball, toss a ball, skip, and run. He or she will be able to dress by him or herself, build with blocks. At age three to five a child will have developed motor skills needed to write letters, color pictures, and identify pictures. Children at this stage in development should be able to use full sentences that everyone can understand (Martinez, 2010). He or she will be able to copy physically a person who is giving commands like “clap your hands,” and “stomp your feet.” The ability to follow direction is that these children have learned fine motor skills and balance skills. The more, a parent works with his or her child, the more the brain will retain the information. The brain develops the skills needed to identify objects out of place, which objects match, and which objects are opposites. Children at this age learn social skills that help him or her interact with other children to play games and create relationships.
Girls versus Boys
During early childhood the brain, made up of neurons, is more active than the brain of an adult. . Neurons communicating with each other create synapses. The baby’s brain has made more than 10,000 connections. These connections in