Who: China, foreign merchants (British)
What: Foreign traders entering city were subject to a series of regulations by Chinese government
Where: Southern port of Canton
Why: Means for China to control trade with the west within its own country by focusing all trade on southern port of Canton
Commissioner Lin Zexu:
Who: Chinese Scholar and official of Qing Dynasty
What: His forceful opposition to opium trade on economic, moral, and social grounds is considered to be the primary catalyst for the First Opium War.
When: Appointed to commissioner in late 1838
Why: He wanted to suppress the trading of opium
The Treaty of Nanjing:
Treaty in 1842 that ended the first opium war. It was the first of unequal treaties between China and foreign powers. China paid the British for compensation, ceded territory of Hong Kong, and established “fair and reasonable” tariff. Merchants were allowed to trade at five “treaty ports” and with whoever they wanted.
Chinese religious prophet and leader of Taiping Rebellion (1850-64). He declared his own new dynasty, which centered on city of Nanjing. The rebellion altered the course of modern Chinese history. Self-proclaimed brother of jesus christ
The Taiping Rebellion:
Massive civil war in southern China from 1850-64 against the Qing dynasty. Movement led by Hong Xiuquan that resulted in 20 million people dying. The rebellion included social reforms like property in common, equality for women, and form of Christianity. The Qing government crushed the rebellion with the aid of French and British forces. Today viewed as inspiration.
Empress Dowager Cixi:
Apart of the Manchu Yehenara clan, powerful and charismatic woman who controlled government for 47 years (1861-1908). Refused to adopt western models of govt., but supported technological, military reforms and self-strengthening movement. Rejected the hundred day’s reforms of 1898 as impractical and detrimental to dynastic power. Responsible for fall of dynasty.
The Self-Strengthening Movement:
Chinese military and political reform movement that initiated in early 1860s by Feng Guifen. Attempted to adapt Western institutions and military innovations to Chinese needs. Zongli Yamen (1861) is an imperial office est. to manage relations with foreign countries. Most innovations were superficial and failed to solve the problems.
1871-1895, Politician, general, and diplomat of late Qing Empire. He ended several major rebellions and served in important positions of imperial court. Best known for his pro-modern stance and importance as negotiator. He antagonized the British with support of Russia. Praised for diplomatic skills defending Chinese interests in era of unequal treaties.
The Hundred-Day Reform:
Failed 104 day national cultural, political, and educational reform movement from June 11- Sept 21, 1898 during the late Qing dynasty. Undertaken by Guangxu Emperor and was short-lived ending by powerful opponents led by Empress Dowager Cixi.
Chinese scholar, calligrapher, and prominent political thinker/reformer of Qing dynasty. Led movements to est. constitutional monarchy and was passionate Chinese nationalist/internationalist. Ideas inspired hundred days’ reformation movement that was supported by Guangxu emperor, but hated by Empress Cixi. He advocated constitutional monarchy after founding Republic. Ideology was never put into practical application
The Boxer Rebellion:
Aug.1899- Sept 1901. Anti-imperialist uprising which took place in China towards end of Qing dynasty. Initiated by militia united in righteousness (Yihetuan/Boxers) motivated by protonationalist sentiments and opposition to foreign imperialism and associated Christian missionary activity. Eight-Nation alliance is Brit, Rus, Jap, Fra, US, Ger, Ita, Austra-Hungary. Other side was Yihetuan (boxers) and China. Eight nation alliance won and captured Beijing. Boxer Protocol was made that provided