Essay about China Terms

Submitted By Chuwawax1
Words: 1619
Pages: 7

PRC/CCP/KMT/PLA/NPC | PRC: People’s Republic of China-World’s most populous country. Governed by the National People’s Congress.CCP: Chinese Communist Party-Chen Duxiu-one of the founders of the CCP called “Mr. Science and Mr. Democracy”KMT: Kuomintang or Nationalist Party-Sun Yat-senPLA: People’s Liberation ArmyNPC: Northern People’s Congress | Confucianism | Central belief in unequal relationships and mutual respect among people of different statuses, especially within families.Mandate of heaven, vision of an ideal society based on harmony and obedience, hierarchical social and political organization; rulers and subjects have unequal positions, and emphasis on loyalty to family. | Maoism | Democratic centralism, responsibility of ruler to the people. Vision of ideal society based on self-reliance and struggle. Egalitarian social structure; mass line between rulers and subjects. | Great Leap Forward(1958-1966) | A utopian effort to transform China into a radical egalitarian society. Mainly economic and was based on 4 principles. 1) All-around development 2) Mass Mobilization-better motivation, harder, work, less unemployment 3) Political unanimity and zeal-emphasis on party workers running govt. not bureaucrats. Cadres –low leveled party workers had to demonstrate devotion by making people to work hard as they could. 4) Decentralization-encouraged more govt. on the local level, less central control. | Cultural Revolution (60’s-70’s) | Much more profound reform that encompassed political and social change, as well as economic. Main goal was to purify the party and the country through radical transformation…important principles: Ethic of struggle, mass line, collectivism, egalitarianism, and unstinting service to society. | Mandate of Heaven | The right to rule as seen by the collective ancestral wisdom that guided the empire from the heavens above. Responsibility of ruler to the people. | Local elections | Direct elections, voters choosing deputies to serve on the county people’s congresses. | Extraterritoriality | Meant that the European’s law, not China’s, applied to the activities to the European people that moved into China. | CCP hierarchy | | China v. Russia comparisons | | Democratic centralism | Meant that they were democratic in name only and were ruled by a tiny group of party officials at the top of the hierarchy. The communist belief in a small group of leaders who make decisions for the people. | Deng Theory (‘62) | Practical mix of authoritarian political control and economic privatization. “it doesn’t matter whether a cat is white or black, as long as it catches mice.” | Fang-shou | A tightening up, loosening up cycle. A waxing and waning of the power of each.3 types of actions/policies –economic reform, political movement (loosening up), and a tightening up by the CCP. | SEZ/TVE/SOE | SEZ: Special Economic Zones-foreign investors were given preferential tax rates and other incentives. TVE: Township and village enterprises-growth of this slowed the migration of peasants to the cities and has become the backbone of economic strength in the countryside.SOE: State-owned enterprises | Joint ventures (technology) | The Cooperative Joint Ventures may have a limited structure or unlimited – therefore, there are two versions. The limited-liability version is similar to the EJVs in status of permissions - the foreign investor provides the majority of funds and technology and the Chinese party provide land, buildings, equipment, etc. However, there are no minimum limits on the foreign partner which allows him to be a minority shareholder. | CCP factions | Radicals: led by Mao’s wife, Jiang Qing, one of the “Gang of Four”, supported radical goals of the Cultural Revolution.Military: Powerful group because of the long-lasting 20th century struggles that required an army.Moderates: led by Zhou Enlai, moderates emphasized economic modernization and limited contact with other countries,