PRC/CCP/KMT/PLA/NPC | PRC: People’s Republic of China-World’s most populous country. Governed by the National People’s Congress.CCP: Chinese Communist Party-Chen Duxiu-one of the founders of the CCP called “Mr. Science and Mr. Democracy”KMT: Kuomintang or Nationalist Party-Sun Yat-senPLA: People’s Liberation ArmyNPC: Northern People’s Congress | Confucianism | Central belief in unequal relationships and mutual respect among people of different statuses, especially within families.Mandate of heaven, vision of an ideal society based on harmony and obedience, hierarchical social and political organization; rulers and subjects have unequal positions, and emphasis on loyalty to family. | Maoism | Democratic centralism, responsibility of ruler to the people. Vision of ideal society based on self-reliance and struggle. Egalitarian social structure; mass line between rulers and subjects. | Great Leap Forward(1958-1966) | A utopian effort to transform China into a radical egalitarian society. Mainly economic and was based on 4 principles. 1) All-around development 2) Mass Mobilization-better motivation, harder, work, less unemployment 3) Political unanimity and zeal-emphasis on party workers running govt. not bureaucrats. Cadres –low leveled party workers had to demonstrate devotion by making people to work hard as they could. 4) Decentralization-encouraged more govt. on the local level, less central control. | Cultural Revolution (60’s-70’s) | Much more profound reform that encompassed political and social change, as well as economic. Main goal was to purify the party and the country through radical transformation…important principles: Ethic of struggle, mass line, collectivism, egalitarianism, and unstinting service to society. | Mandate of Heaven | The right to rule as seen by the collective ancestral wisdom that guided the empire from the heavens above. Responsibility of ruler to the people. | Local elections | Direct elections, voters choosing deputies to serve on the county people’s congresses. | Extraterritoriality | Meant that the European’s law, not China’s, applied to the activities to the European people that moved into China. | CCP hierarchy | | China v. Russia comparisons | | Democratic centralism | Meant that they were democratic in name only and were ruled by a tiny group of party officials at the top of the hierarchy. The communist belief in a small group of leaders who make decisions for the people. | Deng Theory (‘62) | Practical mix of authoritarian political control and economic privatization. “it doesn’t matter whether a cat is white or black, as long as it catches mice.” | Fang-shou | A tightening up, loosening up cycle. A waxing and waning of the power of each.3 types of actions/policies –economic reform, political movement (loosening up), and a tightening up by the CCP. | SEZ/TVE/SOE | SEZ: Special Economic Zones-foreign investors were given preferential tax rates and other incentives. TVE: Township and village enterprises-growth of this slowed the migration of peasants to the cities and has become the backbone of economic strength in the countryside.SOE: State-owned enterprises | Joint ventures (technology) | The Cooperative Joint Ventures may have a limited structure or unlimited – therefore, there are two versions. The limited-liability version is similar to the EJVs in status of permissions - the foreign investor provides the majority of funds and technology and the Chinese party provide land, buildings, equipment, etc. However, there are no minimum limits on the foreign partner which allows him to be a minority shareholder. | CCP factions | Radicals: led by Mao’s wife, Jiang Qing, one of the “Gang of Four”, supported radical goals of the Cultural Revolution.Military: Powerful group because of the long-lasting 20th century struggles that required an army.Moderates: led by Zhou Enlai, moderates emphasized economic modernization and limited contact with other countries,
Aspect of China
November 20th, 2012
China has been known and famous for their strong and unique culture for years. China has been known to have the oldest continuous civilization. Beijing is the capital of China, and is the country’s main focal point. China’s main language, as most know, is Chinese, which grew from the Mandarin dialect. Although the number one language is Chinese, China still has a large amount of business people who are fluent English speakers. China is full of…
Review Question 1: Why did the government of China engage in significant economic reforms in 1978, and what were the effects of these reforms during the next 6 years?
The Chinese government under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping began economic reform in the late 1970s. The decision to transform the Chinese centrally planned economy to a market economy was driven by a number of political and historical factors.
First of all, the shortcomings of the Soviet-style command economy to drive economic growth…
market in China.
GM was a US automaker company, and entered the market of China by joint ventures. SAIC is GM’s major joint venture partner, and it had become the largest plant in China. GM was earning high profits from China by 2004. However, GM faced the challenges from both foreign and local competitors, overcapacity and intervention from Chinese Government. In 2004, the sales dropped sharply.
The first part will be analyzed by STEP theory of the motor vehicle market in China in 2004. Then…
A STRATEGIC ANALYSIS
WANG XUAN [ID: 43627570]
China Eastern Air Holding Company, headquartered in Shanghai, is one of the three largest major state-owned air transport companies in China. ‘The scope of business includes public air transportation, general aviation and air transport operations and…
Kevin P. Gallagher and Roberto Porzecanski, The Dragon in the Room:
China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization. Stanford, CA:
Stanford University Press, 2010, pp1-148.
The main thesis of Gallagher and Porzecanski’s study on trade relations and
government policies in China and Latin America is that there is an inherent danger in the
current state of affairs. In addition, many scholars believed that China’s unprecedented
economic rise has…
Individualism or Collectivism; Masculinity and Femininity; Uncertainty Avoidance and Short or Long Term Orientation. Each value aids in developing a model to understand an approach and the preparation that should be taken to be effective and successful in its dealings with that particular culture.
Hofstede Five Values
I have selected two countries using Hofstede cultural dimensions model. China who has the second largest economy in the world and Russia who is currently experiencing an economic…
Stated and China have traded on good terms for over thirty years; these two countries are the glue that holds the economic trading system together. U.S.-China trade rose rapidly after the two nations established diplomatic relations in January of 1979. Trade between two countries has increased since that time, growing from $4.8 billion in 1980 to $147.2 billion in 2002. China has been growing at a phenomenal rate and recently became the second largest economy in the world. Moreover, China holds the…
foreign markets when the foreign currencies are strong in real terms. Specifically, ROC attaches great importance to China which is the largest market for ROC in terms of sales volume and revenue. Therefore, they have taken two large expansions in China when Chinese Yen appreciate significantly.
The first time is in 2001, when ROC began to sale oil to China. As the data illustrates, Chinese yen has experienced a significant depreciation in terms of US dollars from￥5.8/$ to ￥8.6/$ in 1994. Then Chinese…
the center of the Chinese history.
•This can either emphasized a generally positive role for the treaty ports (ie, the economic, social, intellectual, and cultural forces released there caused Chinese reformers to attack the parts of traditional China that inhibited modernity) or a negative one (the unprecedented violence of imperialism impeded China’s natural development into a capitalist nation and demanded a revolutionary response that awakened the masses and thereby toppled external imperialist…
between the UK and China including social structure, cultural context and institution. All these differences may have influences on human resource management such as recruitment, working, pensions, tax and training courses in different countries. This report will analyse how to implement human resource activities when setting up a branch in China through comparing and contrasting the institutional and cultural differences of both the UK and China.
Differences between the UK and China