1.Describe factors that influence life expectancy.
Life expectancy can influenced by nutrition, medical treatment, sanitation, safety, healthy care, housing, social service, life style, gender, gene, and so on. Now days, life expectancy is much more longer than a hundred years ago. That’s because the age we lived in don’t have that much wars. At the wars age, people die for accident, hunger, disease, and so on. Due to the improve of the stability of the world, medical technology, and economic. War and poverty are two huge factors that have a great impact on life expectancy. If people have a place to live in, and have foods to eat, of course the life expectancy would extend. Also, if the society in can support people well and people can get medical treatment when they get ill, of course people can live longer. Beside these, one’s internal factor is also has a great impact on life expectancy. For example, people can choose their life style. They can live healthy. They can also abuse drugs, alcohol, cigarette and so on. Women tend to live longer than men because they are less exposed to bad habits such as abuse cigarette and alcohol. Gene is also a very important factor even though we can’t do anything to change our gene. There are people who just born to live longer than others. All in all, life expectancy is influenced by so many factors such as the place one lives in, the way one lives, the overall environment and culture one lives in, and so on.
2.An elderly relative has trouble falling asleep at night and wonders if he should take prescription-sleeping aids. What advice can you give him?
I would tell him that it is ok to take prescription-sleeping aids, but just temporary, he shouldn’t rely on any of those pills to fall asleep. Long-term medication can make things worse, it will increase the frequency and severity of sleep apnea and by inducing rebound insomnia after the drug is discontinued. This is what he expected. I would told him to be relaxed for this issue because even very healthy older adults have trouble sleeping. Especially in men, men are more sleep disturbances than women. It is very normal and don’t have to worry about. Then, I would recommend some healthy daily habits that could help him. For example, he should have are more regular timing, so he will go to bed and wake up at the same time everyday. Also, he should only sleep at night, which the time he should be sleep. If he takes a nap in daytime, he will hard to fall asleep in evening, and then the next day he will feel tired and want to take a nap again. This is what he can avoid. Also, he might want to only using the bedroom to sleep, watching TV or reading a book could also affect his sleep. Finally, if he can do some exercise everyday, he could fall a sleep more easily. If all of these don’t works, I would tell him to take the new laser surgical procedures that relieve symptoms of enlarge prostate without complications.
3.Discuss nutritional problems and considerations for older adults.
The physical changes of late life lead an increased need for certain nutrients. To protect the bones will need calcium and vitamin D. Calcium is the basic material of bones. Dairy products maintain large amount of calcium and it’s easier for human to absorb. Therefore, dairy product is good for older people to supplement calcium for their body. They should also avoid acid types of foods or drinks such as coke, they will decrease the rate of our body absorb calcium. If older adults don’t consume enough calcium and vitamin D, they will have a higher risk of osteoporosis. It would leads older people easily have fractured. Older people might also need zinc and vitamins B6, C, and E to protect the immune system. If immune system doesn’t works well, they will easily become sick. For older adult, illness such as cold, which is not a big deal for young people, can leads something worse. They also need vitamins A,