CHO 1 Spring 2015 Essay

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Food Label Group Project
• Overview – Choose two breakfast cereals to compare food labels, capture video in purchase environment, upload to
Blackboard using Kaltura, compare and evaluate characteristics of each cereal and answer questions.
• During group time this week (W or F) will view examples videos, review Kaltura, and do a comparison of a couple sample cereals to get a feeling for how much work is involved and how to complete the steps. Also, define roles for each group member, and get questions answered. • During following two weeks complete the project and upload the result to Blackboard Learn as a submitted assignment. CHO – 1: Lecture Learning Outcomes
• Name the three main monosaccharides in the diet
• Name the three main disaccharides in the diet and define their monosaccharide composition
• Identify sugar alcohols in the food supply
• Compare and contrast characteristics of simple sugars, sugar alcohols and artificial sweeteners
• Name the digestible and non-digestible complex carbohydrates from plant and animal sources
• Identify sources of carbohydrate, sweeteners and fiber on a food label.
• Calculate the proportion of energy supplied by CHO on a food label.

CHO from plant source foods

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Types of Carbohydrate
• Digestible vs. Not digestible
• Digestible
– Simple Sugars
• Monosaccharides
• Disaccharides

– More complex Carbohydrates
• Polysaccharides (starches)

• Not Digestible
• Some oligosaccharides
• fiber

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Carbohydrates in Foods
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Fruits

Vegetables
Vegetables

Dairy
Grains
Grains

Protein

ChooseMyPlate.gov

MyPlate:
Sources of Carbohydrates

Grains

Vegetables

Fruits

Dairy

Protein

• All varieties

• All varieties

• All varieties

• Milk
• Yogurt

• Beans
• Nuts

15 grams per serving 5 grams per serving 18 grams per serving 12 grams per serving 4-10 grams per serving (Grains): Keith Weller/USDA; (vegetables): © Mitch Hrdlicka/Getty Images RF;
(fruits): © Ingram Publishing / SuperStock RF

Monsaccharides
• Glucose (dextrose)
– Major monosaccharide in the body
– Main CHO in the blood
– Breakdown of starches and sucrose
– Source of fuel for cells – sole source for some

• Fructose (fruit sugar)
– Component of sucrose
– In fruit, honey, and high-fructose corn syrup
– Converted into glucose in the liver

• Galactose
– Component of lactose
– Converted to glucose in the liver

Monosaccharides

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Disaccharides
• Three main types found in foods
– Sucrose
• Table sugar – glucose and fructose

– Maltose
• Two glucose molecules

– Lactose
• Milk sugar – glucose and galactose

• Must be digested to monosaccharides to be absorbed Disaccharides

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Sugar Alcohols
• Nutritive sweeteners that contribute fewer kcals/gram than simple sugars.
• Absorbed and metabolized more slowly than simple sugars.
• Remain in intestinal tract longer and in large quantities can lead to diarrhea.
• Daily ingestion over 50 g must have label warning. • Examples: sorbitol, xylitol, mannitol, mallitol
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Sugar Substitutes
Which of the following could be used to sweeten homemade cookies?
• Saccharin
• Aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet)
• Sucralose (Splenda) –
• Neotame
• Acesulfame-K (Sunette)
• Tagatose
• Stevia
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Example foods

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Relative Sweetness of Alternatives

baking

baking

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Complex Carbohydrates
• Polysaccharides
• Starch
– Amylose
– Amylopectin

• Glycogen –
– Form of complex CHO in animals

• Dietary fiber

Polysaccharides: Starch
• 10 - 1,000 or more monosaccharides
• Starch
– Amylose--straight chain polymer
– Amylopectin--highly branched polymer

Glycogen






Storage form of carbohydrate for animals…