anthropology- study of origins and development of people and their societies.
economics- the systematized study of how we use our resources and money
geography- the systematized study of earth, it’s resources and how we use them.
political science- study of government and politics.
psychology- study of individual thoughts and emotions, mental processes and behavior
sociology- study or group behavior and interaction, human social behavior.
turning point- a point where a very significant change occurs.
historians- studies how people lived in the past, relies more on written evidence, collects written records and analyzes them.
prehistory- before writing and language was developed. no governments, or cities.
egalitarian- equality ex: relations between men and women are egalitarian because they both play an important role.
forging- hunter gather clans
artifacts- a cultural or historic object made by human beings
culture- learned beliefs, behaviors, attitudes, values and ideals that are characteristics of a culture common practices- what people eat, clothing, sports, tools, technology, customs, work shared understandings- language, symbols, values, arts, political beliefs social organizations- family, class and caste structure. relationships between individuals and government/ economic system, view of authority how it’s learned- observe and imitate, direct teaching
cultural diffusion- spread of ideas, customs and technologies from one culture to another
animism- believed world was full of spirits and forces that resides in animals, objects and dreams.
paleolithic age- also known as old stone age. the earliest period of human history. nomads (2.5 million BCE to 8000 BCE) - first stone makers: 10,000 BC - earliest human life in east Africa - might have migrated north and east. - developed language - ability to control fire - stone age
neolithic age- known as new stone age. (8000 BCE to 3000 BCE) - ability to grow crops - ability learned to domesticate - pottery
sedentary- (neolithic) staying in a spot and doesn’t move. private property
nomads- people who travel around to different places for land.
hunter-gatherers- society where all food comes from the wild plants and animals, contrast to agricultural societies
pastoralists- people who move around from place to place with a herd of animals
pastoral farming- involves animals but stays in one place
domestication- to tame animals or crops negatives- diseases, more resources needed for animals and yourself positives- helps sustains steady supplies for market demands, improves plant and crop rates
neolithic revolution- the fundamental change in the way people lived. changed from hunting gathering to agriculture which led to permanent settlements, the establishment of social classes, and the eventual rise of civilization. negatives- conflict, more private properties, diseases, dependent on crops, responsible for diseases, slavery. positives- civilization, surplus, population increase, specialization causes- difficulty of nomadic life style-unstable, ice age ends, women starts to experiment with seeds
slash and burn agriculture- method of growing food in which wild or forested land is clear cut and any remaining vegetation burned. the resulting layer of ash provides the newly cleared land with a nutrient-rich layer to help fertilize crops. negatives- deforestation, erosion, nutrient loss positives- nutrients to soil for crops
specialization- different jobs in society. not just farming, caused by social…