chp 1 Essay

Submitted By Xiao Tong-Yu
Words: 886
Pages: 4

archeology- study of past people and cultures.
ex: artifacts, tools, clothing, weapon, jewelries

anthropology- study of origins and development of people and their societies.

economics- the systematized study of how we use our resources and money

geography- the systematized study of earth, it’s resources and how we use them.

political science- study of government and politics.

psychology- study of individual thoughts and emotions, mental processes and behavior

sociology- study or group behavior and interaction, human social behavior.

turning point- a point where a very significant change occurs.

historians- studies how people lived in the past, relies more on written evidence, collects written records and analyzes them.

prehistory- before writing and language was developed. no governments, or cities.

egalitarian- equality
ex: relations between men and women are egalitarian because they both play an
important role.

forging- hunter gather clans

artifacts- a cultural or historic object made by human beings

culture- learned beliefs, behaviors, attitudes, values and ideals that are characteristics of a culture
common practices- what people eat, clothing, sports, tools, technology, customs, work
shared understandings- language, symbols, values, arts, political beliefs
social organizations- family, class and caste structure. relationships between individuals and government/
economic system, view of authority
how it’s learned- observe and imitate, direct teaching

cultural diffusion- spread of ideas, customs and technologies from one culture to another

animism- believed world was full of spirits and forces that resides in animals, objects and dreams.

paleolithic age- also known as old stone age. the earliest period of human history. nomads
(2.5 million BCE to 8000 BCE)
- first stone makers: 10,000 BC
- earliest human life in east Africa
- might have migrated north and east.
- developed language
- ability to control fire
- stone age

neolithic age- known as new stone age. (8000 BCE to 3000 BCE)
- ability to grow crops
- ability learned to domesticate
- pottery

sedentary- (neolithic) staying in a spot and doesn’t move. private property

nomads- people who travel around to different places for land.

hunter-gatherers- society where all food comes from the wild plants and animals, contrast to agricultural societies

pastoralists- people who move around from place to place with a herd of animals

pastoral farming- involves animals but stays in one place

domestication- to tame animals or crops
negatives- diseases, more resources needed for animals and yourself
positives- helps sustains steady supplies for market demands, improves plant and crop rates

neolithic revolution- the fundamental change in the way people lived. changed from hunting gathering to agriculture which led
to permanent settlements, the establishment of social classes, and the eventual rise of civilization.
negatives- conflict, more private properties, diseases, dependent on crops, responsible for diseases, slavery.
positives- civilization, surplus, population increase, specialization
causes- difficulty of nomadic life style-unstable, ice age ends, women starts to experiment with seeds

slash and burn agriculture- method of growing food in which wild or forested land is clear cut and any remaining vegetation
burned. the resulting layer of ash provides the newly cleared land with a nutrient-rich layer to help fertilize crops.
negatives- deforestation, erosion, nutrient loss
positives- nutrients to soil for crops

specialization- different jobs in society. not just farming, caused by social