APUSH, Period 3
December 22, 2014
The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism
German friar Martin Luther denounced the authority of the priests and popes when he nailed his protests against Catholic doctrines to the door of Wittenberg's cathedral in 1517. He declared that the Bible alone was the source of God's words. He started the "Protestant Reformation."
John Calvin of Geneva elaborated Martin Luther's ideas. He wrote his doctrine in Latin in 1536, entitled Institutes of the Christian Religion. These ideas formed Calvinism. Calvanism supported the idea of predestination.
When King Henry VIII broke his ties with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, he formed the Protestant Church. There were a few people who wanted to see the process of taking Catholicism out of England occur more quickly. These people were called Puritans.
A tiny group of Puritans, called Separatists, broke away from the Church of England (Protestant). Fearing that his subjects would defy him both as their political leader and spiritual leader, King James I, the head of state of England and head of the church from 1603-1625, threatened to kick the Separatists out of England. The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth
Losing their identity as English, a group of Separatists in Holland came to America in search for religious freedom. The group settled outside the domain of the Virginia Company and, without legal permission, settled in Plymouth Bay in 1620.
Captain Myles Standish- prominent among the non-belongers of the Mayflower who came to Plymouth Bay; an Indian fighter and negotiator.
Before disembarking from the Mayflower, the Pilgrim leaders drew up and signed the Mayflower Compact. This was a simple agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon. It was signed by 41 adult males. It was the first attempt at a government in America.
In the Pilgrims' first winter of 1620-1621, only 44 of the 102 survived.
In 1621, there was the first Thanksgiving Day in New England.
William Bradford- elected 30 times as governor of the Pilgrims in the annual elections; a self-taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and Dutch; Pilgrim leader. The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth
Charles I dismissed English Parliament in 1629 and approved of anti-Puritan persecutions of Archbishop William Laud.
In 1629, an energetic group of non-Separatist Puritans, fearing for their faith and for England's future, secured a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company. (Massachusetts Bay Colony)
During the Great Migration of the 1630s, about 70,000 refugees left England for America. Most of them were attracted to the warm and fertile West Indies, especially the sugar-rich island of Barbados.
John Winthrop- the Bay Colony's first governor - served for 19 years. Building the Bay Colony
The Massachusetts Bay Colony was not a democracy because its governor did not like Democracy. He did not think that the "commoners" could rule.
The colony's religious residents elected the governor and his assistants and a representative assembly called the General Court. Non-religious residents could not vote.
Visible Saints was another name for the Puritans.
John Cotton- a very devoted Puritan.
Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth
Anne Hutchinson- an intelligent woman who challenged the Puritan orthodoxy; was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony because of her challenges to the Church.
Roger Williams- popular Salem minister who also challenged the Church; an extreme Separatist; was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The Rhode Island "Sewer"
Roger Williams fled to the Rhode Island area in 1636. There, he established religious freedom for all kinds of people. New England Spreads Out
Hartford was founded in 1635. Boston Puritans settled into the Hartford area lead by Reverend Thomas Hooker.
In 1639, the settlers of the new Connecticut