CICCARELLI PPT 11 TheoriesOfPersonality Essay

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Theories of Personality and Intelligence
Chapter 11

Psychology: An Exploration
Ciccarelli © 2010

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LO 11.1 Personality

Personality
• Personality - the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave.
• Character - value judgments of a person’s moral and ethical behavior.
• Temperament - the enduring characteristics with which each person is born.
Psychology: An Exploration
Ciccarelli © 2010

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LO 11.1 Personality

Four Perspectives in the Study of Personality
• Psychoanalytic
• Behavioristic (including social cognitive theory) • Humanistic
• Trait perspectives

Psychology: An Exploration
Ciccarelli © 2010

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LO 11.2

Freud’s historical views of personality

Sigmund Freud
• Founder of the psychoanalytic movement in psychology.
• Europe during the Victorian age.
– Men were understood to be unable to control their “animal” desires at times, and a good Victorian husband would father several children with his wife and then turn to a mistress for sexual comfort, leaving his virtuous wife untouched.
– Women, especially those of the upper classes, were not supposed to have sexual urges.
– Backdrop for this theory.
Psychology: An Exploration
Ciccarelli © 2010

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LO 11.2

Freud’s historical views of personality

Divisions of Consciousness
• Preconscious mind - level of the mind in which information is available but not currently conscious.
• Conscious mind - level of the mind that is aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions. • Unconscious mind - level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness.
– Can be revealed in dreams and Freudian slips of the tongue.
Psychology: An Exploration
Ciccarelli © 2010

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LO 11.2
Figure 1.2

Psychology: An Exploration
Ciccarelli © 2010

Freud’s historical views of personality

Freud’s Conception of the Personality

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LO 11.2

Freud’s historical views of personality

Freud’s Theory: Parts of Personality
• Id - part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious. – Libido - the instinctual energy that may come into conflict with the demands of a society’s standards for behavior.
– Pleasure principle - principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences.

• Ego - part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical.
– Reality principle - principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result. • Superego - part of the personality that acts as a moral center.

Psychology: An Exploration
Ciccarelli © 2010

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LO 11.2

Psychology: An Exploration
Ciccarelli © 2010

Freud’s historical views of personality

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LO 11.2

Freud’s historical views of personality

Freud’s Psychoanalysis
• Psychoanalysis - Freud’s term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it.

Psychology: An Exploration
Ciccarelli © 2010

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LO 11.3

Jung, Adler, Horney, and Erikson’s modifications

Neo-Freudians
• Neo-Freudians - followers of Freud who developed their own competing theories of psychoanalysis. – Jung developed a theory of a collective unconscious. • Personal unconscious - Jung’s name for the unconscious mind as described by Freud.
• Collective unconscious – Jung’s name for the memories shared by all members of the human species.
• Archetypes - Jung’s collective, universal human memories. Psychology: An Exploration
Ciccarelli © 2010

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LO 11.3

Jung, Adler, Horney, and Erikson’s modifications

Neo-Freudians
• Adler proposed feelings of inferiority as the driving force behind personality and developed birth order theory.
• Horney developed a theory based on basic anxiety and rejected the concept of penis envy. – Basic anxiety - anxiety created when a child is born into the bigger and more powerful world of older children and…