Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) has superior detection capacity especially for the rare-earth elements. The samples are usually dissolved before introducing into nebulizers or directly converted to aerosol to be analyzed by laser. Mass Spectrometry (MS) is used to eliminate interferences caused by overlap of mass. ICP-MS has higher throughput so that the operating costs are minimized. http://crustal.usgs.gov/laboratories/icpms/intro.html Colourimetric analysis
Colourimetric analysis is widely used in laboratories to measure the total cyanide after distillation by EPA 335. It provides a simple and economical way to separate cyanide from complex compound so that a more accurate data can be obtained.
CHW-PHC represents The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) for Petroleum Hydrocarbons (PHC) in Soil which specifies analyzing methods and standards for PHC. Specifically, PHC is determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) after isolated though purge and trap procedures. This systematic approach assesses and manages the risk of PHC with excellent flexibility in responding to varied conditions of sites contaminated by PHC. http://www.ccme.ca/ourwork/soil.html?category_id=43#301 Cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy are used to trace tiny amounts of volatile heavy metals such as mercury at room temperature. This technique is more sensitive and provides linear changes over wider range of concentration in the comparison with