Essay on Circulatory System

Submitted By Hannahruby1
Words: 3214
Pages: 13

|St Peters Catholic High School & Sixth Form Centre |
|Assignment 6 – Circulatory System |
|Hannah Roche |

|Roche, Hannah |
|3/15/2013 |


According to the National Health Service, UK, the following are ideal normal pulse rates at rest, in bpm (beats per minute): • Newborn baby - 120 to 160 • Baby aged from 1 to 12 months - 80 to 140 • Baby/toddler aged from 1 to 2 years - 80 to 130 • Toddler/young child aged 2 to 6 years - 75 to 120 • Child aged 7 to 12 years - 75 to 110 • Adult aged 18+ years - 60 to 100 • Adult athlete - 40 to 60
(There is a considerable amount of overlap from 14 to 17 years of age, with younger and older ages, depending on which health authorities you use for data)

Checking your own heart rate: • The wrist (the radial artery) - place the palm of your hand facing upward. Place two fingers on the thumb side of your wrist gently, you will sense your pulse beating there. Either counts them for up to one minute, or thirty seconds and then multiply by two. Counting for 15 seconds and then multiplying by four is less accurate. It is also possible to test the pulse by touching the other side of the wrist, where the ulnar artery is. • The neck (the carotid artery) - place the index and third fingers on the neck, next to your windpipe. When you feel your pulse, either count for the whole sixty seconds, or do it in a 30 or 15 second spell and multiply by two or four. The human heart rate may also be measured at the following points:

• The brachial artery - under the biceps or inside the elbow • Abdominal aorta - over the abdomen • Apex of the heart - by placing your hand or fingers on the chest • Basilar artery - at the side of the head, close to the ear • Dorsalis pedis - the middle of dorsum of the foot • Superficial temporal artery - the temple • The facial artery - the lateral edge of the mandible • The femoral artery - in the groin • The posterior tibial artery - behind the medial malleoulus of the feet This is the maximum number of times your heart can beat per minute. It is a useful measure for sports people, so they can gauge their training intensities.
There are two ways you can find out what your maximum heart rate is: • Have it clinically tested - usually by a cardiologist or an exercise physiologist. People over 35 years of age who are overweight or have not done exercise for a long time are advised to have their maximum heart rates clinically tested by a trained health care professional. The health care professional may use a treadmill and a electrocardiograph. • Predicted maximum heart rate - this involves using a mathematical formula, called the age-adjusted formula.

For adult males: 220 minus your age. For a 25 year-old man it would be 195 bpm (220 minus 25)

For adult females: 226 minus your age. For a 25 year-old woman it would be 201 bpm (226 minus 25)

It is important to remember that this formula gives a rough figure, a ballpark figure. Ideally, you should have your maximum heart beat measured clinically.


Your pulse is affected by exercise. The change in pulse rate depends upon the type of exercise and the length you exercise for.

You will measure your pulse rate after carrying out the same types of exercise for five different lengths of time.


You are provided with:

• A timer

• A step

You should read these instructions carefully before you begin.

1. Record pulse rate at rest.

2. Use the step