Circumcision: A Male and Female Human Rights Issue In 1891, P. C. Remondino, MD wrote a book advocating circumcision to prevent and also to cure things such alcoholism, asthma, epilepsy, curving spines, hernias, gout, rheumatism, and even headaches (Macris). A few hundred years later, in most English speaking countries, genital mutations were initially accepted into culture as a way to prevent masturbation (Macris). As these theories were disproved, a various amount of medical “reasons” for removing genital tissues arose in America to make male circumcision acceptable. Circumcision supposedly prevents from urinary tract infections to sexually transmitted diseases. Interestingly enough, in America infant female genital mutation is illegal, whereas removing the foreskin off of infant male remains legal. Physicians have recommended that having a circumcised infant male reduces the likelihood of urinary tract infections (UTI). The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) stated that the early research of UTIs in uncircumcised males are “retrospective,” may have “methodological flaws,” and “may have been influenced by a selection bias” (Macris). Dr. Martin Altschul also disagrees with the early UTI research. Dr. Altschul is a more recent researcher of statistics and pediatrics (Marcis). Dr. Leonard J. Marino, a New York pediatrician agrees with Dr. Altschult. Since one fourth of my male infant patients are not circumcised, and if the frequency of UTI in the uncircumcised is as high as it is said to be, I should be seeing many UTIs in male infants. If I’m missing the diagnosis, they somehow are getting better without treatment. My experience reinforces the practice of discouraging routine circumcision, a cause of morbidity than benefit (Altschult, Macris).
Circumcision is also said to reduce risks of retracting sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS and diseases such as pelvic inflammatory and chlamydia (Houle). In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases are prevalent. The risk is of contracting an STD high for sexually active male and females that are both circumcised and uncircumcised without proper protection. Specifically, male foreskin does not create diseases like AIDS or HIV. Safe sex prevents the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, not simple circumcision. Sex education about contraceptives, such as condoms and applying that knowledge is what prevents STDs from spreading from person to person. Circumcision is also told to protect both the male and females from various cancers. Circumcision “reduces” cervical cancer in the female partner and penile cancer in the male counterpart (Houle). Penile cancer is a disease commonly in older men and is one of the least occurring issues. Penile cancer accounts for 0.5% of all cancers in men and the rate is 1 to 100,000 per year in America. Research shows that a daily hygiene significantly reduces risk of penile cancer (Macris). Studies in the 1950s are the cause of the thought that cervical cancer because their partner is uncircumcised. The AAP reported that cervical cancer is not able to prove that an intact partner has an effect to whether the woman will get the certain type of cancer (Macris). In America, male genital mutation is common and accepted. Female mutations are now illegal nationwide, North Dakota Legislature was the first state in the United States to legally ban female genital mutations. It became effective on August 1, 1995. The Equal Protection Clause of the Fifth and fourteenth amendments of the United States of America is in violation since banning female genital mutation and not male mutations. Not only is the gender inequality an issue, but the fact that genital mutations are done for cultural reasons on non-consenting babies. In the United States alone over 1.5 million infant males are subjected to unnecessary mutilations without knowledge. In male’s genitalia, the prepuce contains important tissues, many blood