Notes: Newcastle Upon Tyne: Pear Tree Books

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How to reference
These Harvard-based guidelines are generic and are meant to supplement, not replace, the guidelines given to you for your programme, which are usually provided in your module handbooks. Some subjects make these guidelines available on the portal. You are advised to follow your module/programme instructions exactly for citing and referencing sources, and use this guide for further information only. For further information on a wide variety of sources, consult Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2008) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. Newcastle upon Tyne: Pear Tree Books.


1. In-text references / citations This means how to put references in the body of your assignment, and this section includes the following cases: 1. A typical reference - what to include and what not to 2. Incorporating others’ material - words and expressions to use 3. Author's name occurs naturally in the sentence 4. Author’s name does not occur naturally 5. Page numbers - when to use them 6. More than one cited document by the same author(s) in the same year 7. Two authors of one work 8. More than two authors of one work 9. Dictionaries, encyclopaedias or other collaborative works with several authors 10. No originator 11. Newspaper where no author is given 12. Corporate authors or organisations where no individual’s name is indicated 13. Year of publication unknown 14. Secondary sources (one author referred to in another’s text) 15. Different authors saying the same thing 16. Author in an edited book 17. Diagrams, photos, charts, maps and other illustrations 18. Unsure whether to cite or not? 19. How many references should there be? 20. Compare, comment and critique

2. Reference list or bibliography This means how to make a reference list or bibliography (this section describes the difference between the two) at the end of your assignment for the following types of sources:

1. The difference between a reference list and bibliography 2. How to make a reference list 1. Books (several authors, edited books, chapters, editions, same author and year, theses and dissertations) 2. Journal Articles (periodicals, printed, electronic and online) 3. Downloaded articles 4. Web pages 5. Conference papers 6. Newspapers 7. Film and television programmes 8. Interviews 9. No obvious author, publisher, date or place, inc. Government publications

NB for types of source not listed here, please refer to Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2008) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. Newcastle upon Tyne: Pear Tree Books

1. In-text references / citations How to put references in the body of your assignment

1. A typical in-text reference in an author/date (Harvard type) system might look like the one below. Note that the full stop comes after the reference to include it in the sentence to which it refers: One of the most problematic aspects of environmental policy-making is said to be that of persuading big actors of its apparent importance (McDonald, 2006). However… When you are putting references into the body of your assignment, whatever type of source you use (book, newspaper article, journal article, website etc.), the basic principle is the same in Harvard styles of referencing: you just need to include the author’s surname and the year of publication. Do not include too much information in the in-text reference: the web address, publisher, title etc. are not necessary and are distracting, unless they occur naturally in the sentence to help give it meaning - for example: In Poole’s article on ‘Why the polar icecaps are melting’ (2006), the biggest cause is cited as