Black Codes: southern state laws enacted after the Civil War that greatly restricted black mobility, economic opportunity and political expression. Lawmakers barred blacks from attending white schools, marrying whites, testifying in court, having a gun, or owning property. Southern states rewrote their constitution to separate the races from birth to burial.
Booker T. Washington/Tuskegee Institute: He believed in assimilating within the overwhelming white power. He was an ex-slave who founded Tuskegee Institute to promote his belief that blacks should seek economic self-reliance first not political equality. He said that blacks should accept their second-class citizenship. Tuskegee Institute for industrial training. He gave a controversial speech where he appealed to whites to accept blacks as partners in helping the South’s lagging economy. He thought that if blacks first proved their worth in the marketplace political equality and social integration would follow.
Reconstruction Amendments: 13th- abolished slavery; 14th-gave blacks citizenship guaranteed them equal protection under the law; 15th-prohibited racial discrimination in voting. These amendments worked to promote equality to the four million blacks that entered the mainstream of society after the civil war.
Mississippi Plan: The violent restoration of southern white governments after Reconstruction. Despite the blacks newly founded rights Southern’s worked to terrorize the blacks into not using them. Groups such as the Ku Klux Klan raped and lynched thousands of black men and women. Lynching became a normal thing that showed nationalism within the states.