Classification Systems of Motor Skills

Open/Closed

Open involves a very dynamic environment with changing factors that will impact a movement or action

Closed is a controlled and unchanging environment that doesn’t impact a movement or action

Gross/Fine

Gross uses a very broad amount of movement or muscles, large movement

Fine is very small, precise movement

Discrete/Serial/Continuous

Discrete is a single motion or action with a distinct beginning and end

Serial is repeating the same motion over and over or performing several discrete motions together

Continuous is a movement that doesn’t have a defined end point, it can essentially go on forever

Motor/Cognitive

Motor is more physical action, more movement and doesn’t involve thinking

Cognitive involves a great thought process and mental decisions instead of just acting

Characteristics of Skilled Performance

Certainty of goal achievement

Minimum energy expenditure

Minimum movement time

Patterns/Curves of Motor Skill Learning

Linear

Means that will every trial or day of learning a new skill, someone gains the exact same amount of skill each time. Very rare, most people don’t learn this way.

Negatively Accelerating

A very rapid rate of growth or development of a skill in early trials but then improvement begins to plateau and level off. Improvement rate decreases in time.

Positively Accelerating

Very slow learning in initial stages, in later trials much greater improvement and skill development is more rapid. Improvement rate increases with time.

S-shaped

Very fast early growth in early trials, then development tapers off slightly and plateaus, then after more trials skill improvement begins to increase much more in later trials.

Lecture 2

Differences Between Individuals in Motor Abilities

Describing and explaining individual differences in motor performance

Concept of Correlations

Correlation –The measure of the degree of association between two variables. Ex: Height and Weight

Scatter plots are very good ways to show a correlation

Direction

A correlation is positive or negative

Positive is when one variable increases, so does the other

Negative is when one variable increases, the other decreases

Strength

Refers to how close to straight line the units of data fall

“Perfect” correlation is a straight line = Perfect prediction

For every one unit of increase in one variable, there is on unit increase in the second

The more deviation from a straight line, or the larger the envelope, the less correlation between the two variables

The less deviation from a straight line, or smaller the envelope, the greater the correlation between the variables.

Strength and Direction of correlation are independent of each other

Alternative Ways to Show Correlation

Mathematically or statistically calculate a correlation coefficient

Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient

Abbreviated – r=

Ranges from -1.0 - +1.0

“Perfect Correlation” = -1 or +1

Calculation of R^2

If R = .4, then R^2 = .16

16% of variability between two different variables

Significance of R^2 depends on the situation.

Causality

Cannot be inferred from correlations

Just because two things are strongly positively correlated does not mean that one causes the other to occur, can be coincidence

Differences in Motor Ability

A general trait or capacity of an individual

Relatively enduring characteristic

Can serve as on determinant of his/her achievement potential in particular motor/sport/physical activities

Essentially, someone can be predetermined to be gifted or succeed at certain tasks just because of genetics

Theory of “Singular Global Ability”

Hypothesis/Theory: There is one general ability that underlies all motor sport skills

If you have good general ability, you can become skilled at any sport or motor skill.

Groupings of Abilities

Simple Classification System

Perceptual-Motor: 10+ separate abilities; reaction time, response time, speed of