Essay on Clinical Exam Final Study Guide

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Wheeling Jesuit University
Department of Nursing

Study Guide for Final Exam

• Levels of Prevention
1. Primary-Prevent something before a problem happens. Ex. Flu shot
2. Secondary-Early detection. Ex. Early stages of cancer, blood pressure.
3. Tertiary-Rehabilitation. Ex. Having a stroke, yet preventing complications.
• Evaluation of food intake
Quality and range of nutrients.
• Function of stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Stomach-produces HCL and breaks up food/ kills germs and bacteria. Provides muscular support
Small intestine-most of the digestion takes place here. More gastric juices are secreted here. Bile from the gallbladder helps emulsify fat.
Large intestine-where the final absorption occurs, most water, some minerals
• Primary source of energy
• Essential amino acids
The only way to obtain them is by eating them.
• Water soluble vitamins
Vitamins that are dissolved in water and absorbed in the small intestine. Thiamine B1, Riboflavin B2, Niacin B3, Pyridoxine B6, Folate, Cobalamin B12, Biotin, Choline, and C.
• Function of Vitamins A, K, B12, A-Necessary for sight! Maintain skin and mucous membranes, vision, bone growth, immune system and normal reproduction. K-Co-factor in synthesis of blood clotting factors including prothrombin. Newborns-First injection of vitamin K! B12-Needed for the production of RBC’s. Also, coenzyme DNA and RNA.
• Percentage of body weight/water Females-50-55% Males-55-60% Infants-75-80%
• Primary intracellular and extracellular minerals
• Relationship of water/fat in men and women

• Vitamins and pregnancy
Slows absorption of iron and calcium. Increases secretion of renal sodium. Increase most vitamins except A and D. Increase Folate! Increase Iron-provide blood, make extra RBC’s. A little more calcium.

Nutrition during pregnancy
Should gain 25-40 pounds. Extra 300 calories during the second and third trimester. Need extra protein, about 60 grams per day. Vitamins and minerals increase.
• Recommendations for hyperemesis gravidarum
Vomit frequently; therefore, eat small, frequent meals, drink liquids between meals rather than with them. Avoid fried foods and whatever else makes you sick.
• Weight gain during first year of life
Triples weight in the first year.
• Food allergies in children
Goal is to breastfeed for the first year. Do not introduce new foods too quickly. Too much solid food.
• Diet during first two years of life
At age 2 the baby can have cows milk. Should not have decreased fat until after age 2, necessary for nerve growth. Consistency of food is important. No more than 12 ounces per day of fruit juice during the first year.
• Hazards of bed rest
Lose muscle tone, decrease bone calcium, decrease blood plasma volume, gastric secretions decrease. Skin integrity. Also have glucose intolerance.
• Clear liquid diet
No longer than 24 hours! Ex, clear liquids.
• Types of tube feedings
Standard-Normal functioning GI tract, can increase calories, like ensure
Elemental formula-Pre-digested, trouble absorbing of digesting, tastes bad
Modular formula-Not nutritionally complete, has single macro nutrient. Ex. Glucose, fat, or protein
Specialty formula-For specific diseases. Ex. Diabetes, kidney failure-low in K, liver failure-protein.
• Signs and symptoms of fluid volume deficit and overload
Fluid Volume Deficit-Orthostatic hypotension.
Overload-Edema- 1.) Fluid in interstitial spaces. 2.) Take in too much sodium, and body needs extra fluid.

• Interventions for dysphagia
Eat slow, put them upright, use a spoon.
• Treatment for hiatal hernia and heartburn
Sit up for about an hour after eating. Eat lean meat and drink skim milk. Small frequent meals. Avoid alcohol, chocolate, coffee, citrus juice, and spicy foods.
• Causes of peptic ulcer
Ulceration of the mucosa which exposes the submucosa to gastric secretions. Occur