Essay on Cognitive Development (Piaget and Vygotsky)

Words: 2466
Pages: 10

I. Theoretical Perspectives
1. Introduction:
There are a number of theorists that have ideas, charts, and graphs about how a child develops. Many are used today to determine when a child is mature, when they can feel emotion, and other important factors to which there are no strict textbook answers for. Piaget and Vygotsky are two theorists that offer theoretical perspectives on how a child develops.
2. Piaget's Constructivist Theory of Cognitive Development:
Piaget had a phrase that said "Assimilation and Accommodation lead to Adaptation." Assimilation is when a person fits his or her external information in with what he or she already knows. The change is external in this case. Accommodation is the exact
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A thought process begins to connect these physical actions to explanations of why they happened. They can now use rule of logic. Using logic, the child is capable of reversibility and conservation.
4. Formal Operational: (Ages 11 – 15)
The child at this point is able to imagine a hypothetical situation, or solve a problem that it not directly in front of them. Conceptual reasoning is now possible of the child. They are becoming more adult-like in their thought structures and processes. There is high potential in the child to use logic to his or her fullest capacity.
C. Characteristic Features of Thinking In Each Piagetian Period:
1. During the first stage of Piaget's Theory (Sensorimotor), the child basically deals with what is presented to him. At birth, the child realizes that if an object is not in front of him or her, it does not exist. After the first six to eight months, the development of something called object permanence comes in. Once object permenance takes place, the child can realize that an object will continue to exist after it is out of view.
2. During the Pre-operational stage, the child is very egocentric. The world revolves around only him or her. There is no ability to see the perspectives of another person. If a child is playing "Peek-a-boo" with another person, the child will only cover her eyes. She assumes that if she cannot see, she cannot be seen.
The child also does not understand conservation. If