1.North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): An association of European and North American countries. Formed in 1949 for defense against the Soviet Union after World War II. NATO is a treaty between the 28 countries who are sworn to respond with help, by political or military means, if a member was attack by an external party .
2.Warsaw Pact: A post-World War II military alliance involving the USSR and the Soviet-bloc countries of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, and Romania. The USSR, fearing that West Germany would rise to power again, requested to join NATO, but was rejected. They created the Warsaw Pact which was open to any European country. This pact is a form of collective security.
3.Igor Gouzenko: A cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa. He defected from the Soviet Union to Canda in 1945 with documents on Soviet espionage (Spying) activities in the West. He exposed Joseph Stalin’s effort to steal nuclear secrets, and the technique of planting sleeper agents. The “Gouzenko Affair” is credited for triggering the Cold War.
4.Senator Joseph McCarthy (Committee on Un-American Activities): An investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. It was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties. McCarthy terrified the U.S.A with secret lists of supposed communist in government, entertainment, Girl Scouts, etc. These suspects were persecuted, fired, and black listed. This committee was formed to prevent communism from spreading to Western countries from the USSR. (Like it did to China)
5.Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent: The Prime Minister after King retired in 1948, a Liberal. He refused to outlaw communism, when the Conservatives had tried to make it a problem. He reminded Canadians that such tactics were the trademarks of dictatorships, not democracies. During his time in politics, the media took off. The media gave Laurent an image that seemed to like children. The lawyer from Quebec would soon get the image of being “Uncle Louis”.
6.DEW Line (Distant Early Warning): A system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic region of Canada, and many other locations. The U.S.A. built the radar stations in Canada from 1950-1957 in order to detect a surprise Soviet attack over the North Pole, this would give time for the U.S.A. to counter attack. The U.S.A. had not been given the consent of Canadians, and many Canadians felt violated for their country’s independence.
7.North American Air Defense Agreement (NORAD): Fearing the Soviet Union attack on North American countries, Canada and the U.S.A. agreed to NORAD in 1957, an agreement that would include fighter forces, missile bases, and air-defense radar.
8.United Nations-General Assembly: In 1945, delegates from 51 countries drew up a charter for the United Nation. The United Nations was based on collective security. The General Assembly provides a forum in which member nations can debate issues of concern. Each member is given a seat and a vote. The United Nations have the power to condemn the aggressor through speeches, use economic sanctions (urging members not to trade with aggressor), and respond militarily.
9.United Nations-Security Council: The Security Council is the body of the United Nations that is responsible for maintaining peace and security. There are 5 permanent members of the council. The “Big Five” powers, Britain, France, U.S.A., Russia, and China. There are also 10 non-permanent members. The “Big Five” have veto power.
10.World Health Organization(WHO): Created by the United Nations. Focuses on international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, with its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
11.United Nations Children’s Fund(UNICEF): Created by the United Nations. UNICEF’s main headquarter is in