The pathophysiology of colon cancers and the epidemiology. Prevention measures and teaching risk factors. The future of colon cancer where we are heading into the future.
2COLON CANCER RELATED TO SEDTARY LIFESTYLE
I will be discussing colon cancer and the sedentary lifestyle. What are the relationship and the effects of the sedentary lifestyle? How does the cancer develop? Why are people choosing this high risk lifestyle when it can be preventable with small lifestyle changes? What are the statistic of this lifestyle and behavior? Colon cancer is the third most common cancer. This is approximate 10 percent of cancer deaths in the United States. (Regan A. Howard, 2008)The colon is the lower part of the digestive system. There are three parts of the colon, ascending, transverse and descending. Descending colon can also be called sigmoid colon. The rectum is also part of the digestive system. In nursing school we called this system “a tube within a tube”. In the colon we digest, absorb and eliminate food. The colon is 5 feet in length and muscular as it pushes food to the rectum after it is digested and absorbed. Cancer of the colon or rectum is also called colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer develops in the digestive tract often from growths called polyps. “Cancer usually develops from polyps and is initially benign, but over time mutates into a cancerous tumor. The cancer cells invade and destroy nearby tissue and can break away to form new tumors in other parts of the body. This is call metastasis.” (Center, 2013) There are other risk factors such as a family history and environment. There is new research and data about the pathophysiology of colon cancer. “Researchers detail in Hypoxia inducible factor-1 mediates expression of galectin-1: the potential roll in migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells. The expression of galectin-1, one of the most important lectins participating in the malignant tumor development, has been shown to be regulated by hypoxia, but its mechanism remains elusive.” (Anonymous, 2010).
3COLON CANCER RELATED TO SEDTARY LIFESTYLE Colon cancer develops twice as often in developed countries then in developing countries and the highest rates being found in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Colon cancer is the lowest rate in Africa and India. Hereditary and environmental factors are important with this disease. There is occurring predominantly under the environmental factors. There are also sporadic cases. (Adrouny, 2002) Genetics may predispose a person to colon cancer. My grandmother passed away with colon cancer she was in her 40’s and my uncle had colon cancer in his 40’s. Age and sex are also factors. The male: female ratio varies from 1.0-1.4. Rectal cancer is more common in men than women. (Adrouny, 2002). The risk of colon cancer rises with age. The majority of colon cancers are over age sixty. The ages of forty and fifty years are fifteen new cases per hundred thousand persons. Under the age of twenty, accounts for less than 1 percent of all cases. (Adrouny, 2002). The rate of black people is higher than white people. The main environmental factor is diet. Other exposures are smoking, overeating and obesity. Additionally sedentary lifestyle or occupation can also lead to higher risk this can lead to adenomatous polyps. Diet seems to influence colon cancer. A high fat diet has effects of cancer promoting effect such as increase in bile production and fatty acids can cause bowel irritation. Cell damage can produce free radical caused by peroxidation of fat. A high fiber diet is plant substances witch is resistant to breakdown by human enzymes. Fiber is known not to come in contact with mucosa wall. Fiber also increases the bulk of stools. Some preventable measure is getting a colonoscopy after age 50. If patient has history of polyps we need to remove or monitor the polyp. Colon cancer