Comm Final Essay

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COMM Final Exam

1. What is culture? What are some characteristics of culture? What is the difference between mainstream and co-cultures? Culture Definition: Way of life developed and shared by a group of people and passed down from generation to generation

Created through interactions; evolves, not static; not part of biology (can’t tell culture by looking at someone?

Characteristics of Culture: is an adaptive Mechanism; is learned; cultures change; people usually are not aware of their culture; gives us a range of permissible behavior patterns; no longer exists in isolation

Mainstream Culture: Basic culture that enables all of us to co-exist within a larger, single society. Most common language, basic social institution, material artifacts and technology, majority of values people have

Co-Culture (subculture): unique or specialized ways of thinking and speaking that characterize particular groups; Smaller culture among a larger one (racial or ethnic groups, social classes, regions of the country or religions)

2. Know the five dimensions along which all cultures vary. Be able to recognize examples of the different levels of each dimension. • Individual – Collective I and me –group INDIVIDUALISM -individual goals emphasized -focused on individual identity, comp b/w individual -speak your mind -direct, precise communication COLLECTIVISM -emphasize group goals -competition b/w groups, not individuals -avoid confrontation in group -indirect, imprecise communication

• High Context- Low Context Hint/Indirect- Explicit/Direct (use of communication) HIGH -focus on nonverbal cues -indirect (speak less, listen more) -linked with collectivist cultures LOW -not as much emphasis on nvc's -direct and explicit communication -linked with individualist cultures

• High Power Distance- Low Power Distance Big difference between power levels- Equality (classes) HIGH -value placed on social status, birth order, occupational/political rankings -less access to and direct communication w/ higher status individuals -less likely to question authority figures LOW -equality values as a way of life/nobody inherently superior -can speak to whomever you want -more likely to question authority figures

• Masculinity(achievement)- Feminist (Nurturance) Assertive/Winning- Affectionate/Compassionate MASCULINITY -value work, strength, competition, assertiveness, work ethic -Sex roles more strictly defined FEMININITY -value affection, nurturance, compassion, interpersonal relations -sex roles more flexible

• High Uncertainty Avoidance- Low Uncertainty Avoidance Like to predict, different things are scary- can accept the unpredictable, what to know more about t unknown (dealing with new situation) HIGH -less tolerance for diversity -like rules and predictable behavior -like lots of info and little ambiguity Low -more open to diversity -tolerate changes better -tolerate ambiguity better

3. What is chronemics? -the use and experience of time for communication -cultures vary on this -monochromic vs polychromic Monochromic: ;punctual, on time, time conscious Polychromic: things happen with people show up; -in the west we are very conscious of time (Monochromic)

4. What are ethnocentrism and stereotyping? Ethnocentrism: our way is superior, our culture is center; closes