Overview * Ideological criticism in media studies * Hegemony * Dominant ideologies present in media contents * The case of news media, rap music, popular TV * Advertising and consumer culture
Ideological analysis in media * Ideology * A system of meaning that helps define and explain the world and that makes value judgments about that world. * They don’t know it, but they are doing it.
Ideology as normalization * Ideology defines what is being normal in society * Dominant ideologies * Taken for granted, rarely questioned ideologies * Democracy, capitalism, Christianity, etc. * Media has the tendency to display a narrow range of behaviors and lifestyles
Theoretical roots of ideological analysis * Marxist origins * Ideology as a powerful mechanism of social control whereby members of the ruling class imposed their world view * Gramsci’s view of ideology * Power can be wielded at the level of culture of ideology * Hegemony: control of consensus; promotion of dominant, taken for granted ideologies * Mass media are one of the principal sites where the cultural leadership, the work of hegemony, is exercised.
News media and the limit of debate * News media can be ideological
Ideology in news * How does ideology manifest in news? * Limited viewpoints * A small group of analysts are regular commentators and news sources.
Economic news as ideological construct * Ideologies present in mainstream economic news * Focus on the activities and interests of investors and businesses * Pro-business as being normal * Pro-labor as being deviant * Economic crisis coverage * Top-down perspective (government and businesses)
Movies, military and masculinity * Action-adventure films * Ideology of polarity * Ideology of the rugged individual * Ideology of the American dream * Ideology of manhood * Vietnam films and war films today * Ideological projects to overcome the Vietnam * Syndrome * Ideology of manhood
Ideology and popular TV * Images of family * Dominantly white, upper middle class, happy, secure * Changed toward family conflict and struggle in the 1970s * Work family programs * The new momism * The old, perfect mother image resurrected * Celebrity motherhood
Rap music * Shows the development and change of ideology * Original rap music * A criticism of the dominant ideology of racism within the America power structure * Empowering black youth * Survival in a hostile world
* Ideological contradictions in today’s rap * Commercialization of rap
Advertising and consumer culture * Today’s advertising * Celebrates and takes of granted the consumer capitalist organization of society * Normalizes middle class of upper middle class lifestyle * Promotes a worldview…
Historical development of advertising * Selling consumerism in the early 20th century * Selling a new way of American life * Ads were a tool of social integration * Erasing differences among people
Advertising and globalization * Ads promote an American way of life * Freedom and individuality equated with consumer choice * Cultural imperialism * Use of foreigners in American ads * As the others * Unequal relationship between Americans and foreigners * As exotic * Endorses certain products * As normal * Used in global business ads
Alternative media and ideologies * Media images can and sometimes do challenge this mainstream, status quo-oriented ideology by providing a critique of contemporary social organization and norms * However * Alternatives remain on the margins * Commercialization makes it difficult to maintain a critical edge * Concern for profitability, distribution
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