During the time when people of the United States were arguing whether the United States should be independent from America, Thomas Paine in 1776 anonymously published “Common Sense” in simple English language that why it’s good that the United States should become independent from Great Britain. “Common sense” which went viral in Europe and colonies and further got republished in all parts of United America became one of the brilliant pamphlets written in the English language as it was by far the most influential tract of the American Revolution. It also brought into the sight that the suffering of the colonies was the reigning of British monarch, George III. It challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. Paine spoke to the common people of America and tried to convince other Americans that the ties with Brittan should be cut and America should become independent from Great Britain. Paine argued that it was common sense to believe that the colonies did not need to be ruled by a monarch. He believed that the colonies should be ruled through a meritocracy rather than through monarchy based upon heredity. He argued that monarch did not necessarily deserve their position and that people should have an opportunity to elect their own leaders. Everything else Paine argues revolves around this thought.
In the Common Sense, Paine presents two main arguments. The first was that the United States should be independent from England. He showed the advisability of separation and the problems that were inherent in a monarchy. And the second argument is the creation of a democratic republic. He explored the nature of society, the position America should take with other countries especially Europe diplomacy and trade. He also made the argument that the population was able and had the resources needed to support a strong navy. Paine argues for the American independence. He gives the theoretical reflections about government and religion, and then progresses onto the specifics of the colonial situation. He says that British constitution of king, lords and commons did not work well and that the colonies were being run for the best interests of Britain, not the colonist. It tells the colonists to try to stop being ordered around by the king and that they should fight for their independence. It tells the colonists to break the bands with England and to become an independent nation. He further says that equality and liberty are natural conditions and they should be free to practice religions as they choose not the state religion.
He distinguishes between the between government and society. Society is everything constructive and good that people join together to accomplish. On the other hand, Government is an institution whose sole purpose is to protect us from our own vices. Paine says that government's sole purpose is to protect life, liberty and property, and that a government should be judged solely on the basis of the extent to which it accomplishes this goal. He also gives the example how a small group of people placed in an island and separated from the society develop ties with each other. They make the laws and so are happier that they are the one to create them to rule them. Paine says such a system of representation is better for the American colonists. Contradictorily, Paine thinks that British system is too complex as monarchy is granted too much power and although its system pretends to offer a reasonable system of checks and balances, they actually don’t. Further Paine also discusses the notions of the monarchy and hereditary succession. It’s questionable where the power of kings originally comes from as the power is always based on one of three things: election, random selection, or usurpation. Paine says that if a king is chosen by election, this means all future kings should be chosen in the same way, and if the king usurped his throne, then the entire