What is advertising?
How do you define an ad and what counts?
Advertising definition: to give notice, to inform, to notify, to make known a paid, non-personal message from an identifiable source delivered through a mass-mediated channel that is designed to persuade (persuasion is the intentionality part)
Distinguish from related concepts such as:
Public relations (PR) - which is not necessarily paid and tries to alter the public’s image or enhance a company’s/organizations image
Personal selling – you trying to convince someone there is a certain product they should purchase, etc.
Successful advertising involves information, reasoning and emphasis
Advertising is everywhere
250-5000 ads per day, pay attention to only 130
200 billion spent on ads in 2000 vs. 500 million in 1900
Results in ad clutter (i.e. times square)
Ambient advertising, ad creep, ideas that you can’t escape these messages coming at you
Goals of Advertising (Intended effects)
Awareness – breaking through the clutter
Influencing attitudes and behaviors:
Canalization – channel existing needs to the product
Action – ultimate goal
Immunization can also occur – become immune to the effects of ads through over-exposure or other ways
Distinguish from competition
Perception of difference
Branding (one of the goals of advertising)
Product vs. Brand
Crucial to a product’s success
Positioning & identity
Recognition & loyalty
Does Branding Work?
Preference for advertised brands
About 80% of consumers buy the brand name
Are you really getting a superior product or just better branding?
Video: The Persuaders
Paradox for advertiser – creates a vicious cycle
Emotional connection – importance of the advertisers making this connection with consumers, making sure it resonates so that it creates lifetime commitment and loyalty
Video all about branding
Criticism: Advertising makes people materialistic
How much is too much? We strive for more and more VS.
Perhaps less is more – satisfaction through other means and conservation
Criticism: Advertising is Deceptive
What is deceptive?
Puffery – “best of its kind” “the most beautiful” “finest”
Linguistic Devices used by True but Deceptive Advertising
Hedges – “May help lower cholesterol”
Elliptical comparatives – “Now tastes even better”
Implied causation – Don’t say anything but just imply you may lose weight etc.
Implied slur on the competition – “You’re in good hands”
Pseudo-science – “according to a recent nationwide survey” throwing “science” in there… Criticism: Advertising is Manipulative
Criticism: Advertising invades our Privacy
Criticism: Advertising is a poor source of information
80% of Americans believe TV advertising offers primarily deceptive persuasion
Only 17% say it’s a good source of info
Awareness of exposure
Building knowledge structures
What is the ad really selling?
What are your needs?
Where did they originate?
History of Advertising
Where did advertising come from?
Traces back to 3000 BC (ancient signs carved in stone and wood; town criers)
Throughout time there is much less text in advertisements
1600s – 1850s
Rural communities, small towns
1 blacksmith, 1 general store, people were self-reliant, knew how items were produced
The industrial revolution
U.S. population doubled
From rural to urban society:
Less self-sufficient individuals
Mass production – abundance of products
Mass communication era
Printing press developed – information could be disseminated to large amount of people relatively quickly
Industrial revolution = branding
Manufacturers begin to focus on branding
Brand identity – customers ask for it…