Community Corrections- Alternative to incarceration
Post-adjudication- has been found/pleaded guilty or innocent
Pre-adjudication- Before found/pleaded guilty or innocent
Probation- Community supervision of a convicted criminal
Indeterminate sentencing- encourages rehabilitation and incorporates a broad sentencing range in which discretionary release is determined by a parole board.
Determinate sentencing- has to serve a mandatory minimum sentence before eligible if at all for release (known as presumptive, fixed or mandatory sentencing)
Presumptive sentence- determined sentence, offenders convicted in a jurisdiction will be assessed this sentence unless mitigating or aggravating circumstances are found.
Bail- Monetary payment deposited to make sure defendant returns to court.
Pretrial supervision- Court ordered supervision, to ensure defendant comes back to court. (Reporting, house arrest, electronic monitoring)
Intermediate sanctions- Range of community supervision strategies that varies greatly in terms of supervision level.
Prisoner Reentry- Activity/program to prepare prisoners to return back into the community.
Prerelease program- For prisoners nearing release focuses on transitioning, securing a job and reestablishing family connections.
Parole- early privileged releases undergo community-based supervision for the remainder of their sentence.
Restorative justice- Offender taking responsibility for a crime includes forms of victim-offender mediation, reparation panels, circle sentencing, and monetary sanctions.
Evidence-based practices- Most effective with offenders, (interventions)
Net widening- Using stiffer punishment or excessive control for offenders who would ordinarily be sentenced to a lesser sanction
Recidivism- Rearrested, reconviction, reincarceration.
CJ Population- 7.4 Million/ 3%
Indeterminate V. Determinate-
Pre V. Post- adjudication-
Community Corrections V. Incarceration-
Goals and Responsibilities of Community Corrections- Deterrence, Incapacitation, Retribution, Rehabilitation, Restoration
Chapter 2 Vocabulary Amercement- Monetary penalty by the discretion of a court for an offense
Security for good behavior- Keeping peace for a prescribed period.
Motion to quash- Request that a court repeal, nullify, or overturn a decision, usually made during or after trial.
Surety- Agreeing to become responsible for the debt of a defendant or who answers for the performance of a defendant.
Recognizance- A bond taken by a person before a court that they recognize that they owe a personal debt to the state.
Parens Patriae- The government acts as a substitute parent.
Community Corrections Acts- Formal written agreement between state government and local entities that funds counties to implement and operate CCP on a local level.
Case work- Officer-Client relationship
Brokerage of services- helps probationers or parolees identifying needs and referring them to an appropriate community service.
Community resource management team model- Where Probation/Parole officers develop skills and linkages with community agencies to assist an offender.
Justice model- Fairness in criminal sentencing, which relies on determinate sentencing and/or abolition of parole.
Neighborhood-based supervision- Emphasizes public safety, accountability, partnerships with other community agencies, and beat supervision.
History of Probation-
John Augustus- Boston bookmaker who invented probation (father of probation) (Matthew Davenport Hill)
Models of Probation- Case Work, Brokerage of services, Community Resource Management Team Model, Justice Model, Neighborhood-based supervision
CCA’s- Decentralize correctional sanctions so that they more closely reflect community values and attitudes.
Chapter 8 Vocabulary
Intermediate sanctions- Varies greatly in terms of supervision level, treatment capacity, ranging from