Acidification lowers the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin.
Lactic Acid secretions lower the pH of well-oxygenated blood and induce a rise in blood O2 partial pressure which helps inflate swim bladder.
An increase in temperature typically causes a decrease in O2 affinity.
2-3-DPG- Reduces the O2 affinity (raise the P50) of the hemoglobin molecules with which it binds.
Air breathers typically have far higher arterial CO2 partial pressures than water breathers.
Haldane Effect- Deoxygenation promotes CO2 uptake by the blood, whereas oxygenation promotes CO2 unloading.
CO2 partial pressure is greater when the blood is deoxygenated than when oxygenated.
Acidosis and alkalosis are categories of acid-base disturbance. They occur, respectively, when the blood pH is to the acid or alkaline side of an animal’s normal pH for the prevailing body temperature.
Respiratory- Originating because of changes in CO2 loss by breathing.
Metabolic- Originating because of changes in the blood bicarbonate concentration.
Cardiac output depends on heart rate and stroke volume.
Intercalated discs- include gap junctions and localized mechanical adhesions called desmosomes and fasciae adherents.
Myogenic heart (beginning in muscle) - Each electrical impulse to contract originates in muscle cells.
Neurogenic heart (Beginning in neurons) – Each impulse to contract originates in neurons (nerve cells).
Cardiac ganglion consists of nine neurons which initiate and control the contractions of the neurogenic heart of a lobster.
Open system- The blood leaves discrete vessels and bathes at least some nonvascular tissues directly.
Closed system- There is always at least a thin vessel wall separating the blood for the other tissues.
Microcirculatory beds- Systemic arteries that deliver blood to networks of microscopically tiny blood vessels in all the systemic organs and tissues.
Humans – Systolic 120 ; Diastolic 75 ; Cardiac output 80-90 ml/kg min
Colloid osmotic pressure- The difference in osmotic pressure that arises between two solutions on either side of a cell membrane because the two solutions differ in their concentrations of non-permeating protein solutes.
This difference arises because the plasma is richer than the tissue fluid dissolved in large molecules that do not pass freely through the capillary walls.
Rate of O2 delivery = Cardiac output x (arterial O2 concentration – venous O2 concentration)
In air-breathing fish, blood leaving ABO usually mixes with venous blood. Thus the circulation of the ABO is in parallel with the systemic circuit. This cause REDUCES the efficiency of O2 transport but may help oxygenate the myocardium.
Python & lizards – Vertical septum divides flow to systemic and pulmonary circuit efficiently making different blood pressure in the circuits possible.
Crocodilian reptiles- The incompletely divided central circulation permits pulmonary blood flow to be reduced during times when lung air is O2-depleted.
Osmotic Regulation (Osmoregulation) - Is the maintenance of a constant or nearly constant osmotic pressure in the blood plasma. Ionic Regulation – Of the blood plasma is the maintenance of a constant or nearly constant concentration of an inorganic ion in the blood plasma.
Volume Regulation – Is the regulation of the total amount of water in a body fluid.
The opposite; Osmotic conformity, Ionic conformity, Volume conformity.
Full-strength seawater: osmotic pressure of 1000 mOsm, salinity 34-36g/kg.
Fresh water: 0.5-15 mOsm; salinity .5g/kg
Brackish Waters – where ocean water mixes with fresh water; salinity 0.5 – 30 g/kg: osmo 15-850 mOsm
Water vapor diffuses from regions of high water vapor pressure to regions of low water vapor pressure. Thus evaporation occurs if the water vapor pressure of an aqueous solution exceeds that of the surrounding air. Evaporation takes place at a rate proportional to the difference in vapor…