“Following the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, the United States established a base on the island of Oahu in 1899 . In 1941, the base was attacked by the Japanese military. Over the years, Pearl Harbor remained a main base for the US pacific Fleet after World War II along with Naval Base San Diego” (Wiki, 1). On “December 7th, 1941, a day that will live in infamy, as the day the Japanese launched a surprise military strike. On the Naval base of Pearl Harbor…,” (Wiki, 2), said by president Franklin D. Roosevelt gave on December 8, 1941, in front of Congress. This deliberate attack was starting to be planned around the time the Japanese was arranging a peace with the United States. “The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S, Pacific Fleet from interfering with military action the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States” (Wiki, 2). The tragedy of this attack was enough for the Congress to allow the United States’ entry into World War II. “WHEN IT STRUCK, it must have seemed a plot twist out of some futuristic movie, but this time for real. A sleepy American Sunday afternoon in early December, Yuletide season in the air, roast chicken dinners finished, and the dishes washed, family radios tuned to Sammy Kaye’s Sunday Serenade on the NBC Red Network, or a Great Plays presentation of The Inspector General on the Blue, or perhaps the pro football game between the Washington Redskins and the Philadelphia Eagles. And then suddenly urgent bulletin crackling through static. The future had begun. The shocking interruption started at 2:25 PM, eastern time; 7:48 AM, western time” (Bradley, 97). The First Wave Composition had begun, which occupied “183 planes was launched north of Oahu.” There were three groups that were assigned and attack zone. Group one which targeted:
Gaylor, 2. battleships and aircraft carriers this group consisted of 49 Nakajima B5N Kate bombers armed with 800 kg armor piercing bombs, organized in four sections, one of these failed to launch. 40 B5N bombers armed with Type 91 torpedoes, also in four sections. In the second group they targeted: Ford Island and Wheeler Field, is included 51 Aichi D3A Val dive bombers armed with 550 lb general purpose bombs, three failed to launch. Finally the third group targeted aircraft at Ford Island, Hickam Field, Wheeler Field, Barber’s Point, Kaneohe, this group includes 43 Mitsubishi A6M Zeke fighters for air control and strafing, two failed to launch. In all the Japanese had six failure to launch planes. “The results the Japanese achieved in the Philippines were essentially the same as at Pearl Harbor, though MacArthur had almost nine hours warning that the Japanese had already attacked at Pearl.” Then the second planned wave hit consisted of 171 planes, only Four of these planes failed to launch because of technical difficulties. Group one included 54 B5Ns armed with 550ld and 132 lb general purpose bombs. 27 of these planes targeted aircraft and hangars on Kaneohe, Ford Island, and Barbers Point. The others hit hangars and aircraft on Hickam Field. Then, group two, included 78 D3As armed with 550 lb general purpose bombs, in four sections, all targeted aircraft carriers and cruisers. Finally, group three consisted 35 A6Ms for defence and strafing, which targeted aircraft at Ford Island, Hickam Field, Wheeler Field, Barber’s Point, Kaneohe. When ninety minutes after the attack was all over the amount of casualties and damage was overwhelming to the navy personnel and civilians of Hawaii.
The American suffered grave damages and deaths after those ninety minutes of enemy fire, as 2,386 Americans died, either 48 - 68 were civilians, a further 1,139 were wounded. Eighteen ships were sunk or run aground, including five battleships. Of the American fatalities,