India is a subcontinent, a huge land mass separated from the rest of Asia by mountains and seas.
The worlds tallest mountains, the Himalaya and Hindu Kush ranges.
Stretching across northern India, are broad plains drained by two great rivers: The Ganges and The Indus
The Ganges, rising in the Himalayas, flows south and east to the Bay of Bengal through fertile plains that favor human settlement.
The Indus river is less predictable in terms of weather and is prone to significant changes in its depth and course
The river usually flows twice a year: in spring when it is swelled by melting mountain snow and in summer deposit rick silt, enabling farmers to plant and harvest two crops a year
Farming begins in the Indus valley by 7000 BCE
Towns and cities emerge in the Indus valley by 3000 BCE
As population increased, the villages grew larger and by 3000 BCE. Towns and cities emerged.
The main Indus cities unearthed by archeologists are called Mohenjo-Daro meaning “Mound of the Dead” and Harappa.
Indus culture centers on farming, fertility and family
Indus people connect commercially and culturally with Mesopotamia
Farming was the foundation of Harappan society
Key agricultural achievements included the domestication of chickens and cultivation of cotton, used to make lightweight clothing for the hot climate
Numerous carvings and figurines found in their cities, including children’s toys and depictions of animals indicate great respect for family and nature
Excavations have also uncovered numerous pottery