An outline of rising life expectancy has been observed in many high-income countries around the world, and United States and France are not the exception. According to the WHO the total population of the United States in 2012 was three hundred eighteen million habitants. In the same year the average life expectancy at birth was seventy-six years for men and eighty-two years for women (WHO, 2012). Similarly, in France from a total population of sixty-three million nine hundred thirty-seven thousand, life expectancy in 2012 was sixty-three point four years for men and sixty-nine point two years for women.
Mortality rates in United States continued to decline among most population. In 2011, the age-adjusted death rate for the United States was seven hundred forty point six per 100,000 populations (1). Death rates for all race groups of the U.S. population generally have been decreasing (2-3). Among the fifteen most common causes of death in the United States in 2012 were heart disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, stroke, accidents, influenza and pneumonia, nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis, intentional self-harm (suicide), septicemia, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, essential hypertension and hypertensive renal disease, Parkinson’s disease, and pneumonitis due to solids and liquids; all of those accounted for 62% of all deaths in the United States. Comparatively, the most common causes of death in France include coronary artery disease, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, lung cancers, colon-rectal cancer, influenza and pneumonia, breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, and prostate cancer. Crude death rate in the country was calculated at eight point eight per thousand people in 2012, according to the OECD (2011).
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States consumed more on health care per capita and more on health care as percentage of its GDP than any other nation in 2011. The total expenditure on health per capita in the Unites States in 2011 was eight thousand eight hundred and ninety five dollars, and the percentage of the GDP in healthcare related matters was seventeen point nine percent in 2011 (Truffer et al., 2010). In contrast, in the year 2011 France spent an eleven point eight percent of the GDP on healthcare matters while the total expenditure on health per capita was four thousand two hundred and sixty dollars (Truffer et al., 2010).
Health Care Financing: Comparison between U.S. and France
The French health care system guaranteed universal coverage to all population. The government provides coverage to all residents through a National health insurance also called Statutory Health Insurance (SHI), which is enforced by law. For example, for salaried or self-employed persons and their families entitlement comes through employment, whereas for unemployed people, students or retired person the coverage is a benefit from the government. Complementary private health insurance (PHI) covers 95 percent of the population for more specialized services such as psychologists, dieticians, and etcetera. The state covers illegal residents who have applied for residency. Of the previously mentioned National health insurance, forty- three percent (43%) is funded by employer and employee payroll taxes, whereas the rest is funded by a combination of national earmarked (funds set aside to pay for a specific project or event) income tax, revenue from taxes charged on tobacco and alcohol, state