An element is composed of atoms. Different forms of an atom are isotopes.
Remember SPONCH. Major elements that are found in most life forms. CHNOPS-Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur.
The smallest form of matter that still retains the properties of that matter.
Major components of the Atoms are Protons, Neutrons, & Electrons.
Characteristics of major components.
Protons are positively charged particle of an atom found in the nucleus
Neutrons are uncharged sister particles almost the same mass. Make the atom more massive.
Electrons are negatively charged. Behaves like both matter and energy at the same time. Do not account for the mass. The way they are arranged. Dictates its chemical behavior.
2 to 8 electrons in the outer most skin area of atom
ATOMIC NUMBER AND MASS NUMBER
The number of positive charges for the atomic number is the atomic number.
The mass number is the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
Rows Periods or Series….Families, Columns or Groups.
There is order to the electron arrangement on the periodic table. First vertical column has one electron in the S of the outer level (+1 ions). Middle of periodic table are DFG. Electrically neutral means same number of protons and neutrons.
The nature of an isotope is its mass.
Isotopic Elements can be both harmful and helpful.
Harmful-radiation from nuclear reactions.
Helpful-Medically through radiation. Radiated food.
Electrons & energy
Since all electrons are identical, what distinguishes electrons in a particular atom? The position.
Because it helps Biologists predict the type of bonds that will be found in compounds.
Distribution of Electrons
To know where electrons are is useful because of the octet rule.
Chemically Stable in the octet rule.
Electrically stable means to be neutral.
Covalent bonds are both chemically and electrically stable.
Describe how energy and chemical reactions are related when describing a “chemical reaction.” Exergonic Endergonic. All chemical reactions are trying to stabilize. Energy is neither created or destroyed. If you are building up a product. You take individual parts. You use the amount of energy to build the chemical reaction needed. (Endothermic) Opposite taking something apart (Exothermic). What drives chemical reactions is the necessity of energy.
Types of Bonds: Ionic Bonding
What determines if an atom becomes an ion?
What types of chemical bond forms when ions meet? Ionic bond. Electrostatic charge. Socks sticking to blankets in the dryer. The fact that they are oppositely charged and meet. Charge balance.
What is a salt? Name the two ions. Solid substances that usually separate and exist as individuals ions in water. Anytime you bring the opposite sides of the periodic tables together. Salts are important in Biology because of the metabolism..
Types of Bonds: Covalent Bonds
Usually unequal sharing. Covalent bonds are sharing of electrons.
When you create the octet without the need to get other electrons is hen this type of bond will form. This type of bond is sharing.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond? No difference in negative aura around the atom…..Oils and Fats are very close to being nonpolar.
Noncovalent Bonds Specify the Precise Shape of a Macromolecule
Rotation of bonds due to single electron pair sharing.
Conformations are set up and held by weaker non-covalent bonds that form.
Hydrogen Bonding can make a covalent bond stronger.
Types of Bonds: Covalent Bonds
In a polar covalent bond electrons are shared unequally.
Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract electrons towards itself in a chemical bond.
In water, the oxygen atom is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms and the bonds are polar.
Chemistry of Water
Water is a polar molecule
The shape of a water molecule and its…