Computer Assisted Instruction

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Pages: 11

Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is a narrower term and most often refers to use of computers to present drill-and-practice, tutorial, or simulation activities offered either by themselves or as supplements to traditional, teacher directed instruction (Batey, 1986 cited in Usun, 2004; Grimes, 1977). In this study, CAI refers to the instruction that is carried out by using the educational software Computer Assisted Instructional Material (CAIM) to facilitate learning and teaching through the direct interaction between the student and the computer individually.
Computer-assisted instruction, also referred to as computer based instruction and computer-enriched instruction, can support traditional classroom instruction. The software typically
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However, the resulting CAI may be technology-driven rather than pedagogy-driven (Bernstein, 1998). In fact, there seems to be a belief that learning will take place because technology is present, even in the absence of sound instructional design. This paper provides an overview of some important teaching and learning concepts that should be considered when developing CAI. Learner—Centered Instruction.
Traditional classroom teaching methods have always created a dilemma for conscientious instructors; what is possible for the group may not be ideal for the individual (Somekh & Davis, 1997). Traditional teaching is usually more teacher-centered than learner-centered. This concept is epitomized by an instructor lecturing to a group of twenty students. Each person in the group receives the identical teaching "treatment" yet it is unlikely that each person in the group has identical learning needs or preferred learning styles. CAI may provide an advantage over traditional teaching modalities because CAI can be designed to accommodate individual learner diversities by combining a mix of text and media, and can be accessed by learners individually or in small groups. CAI may be more student-centered than teacher-centered, and may better meet the learning needs of each student
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Deficiencies in the outcomes of learning are, in other words, due to the fact that the knowledge gained from oversimplified settings is not transferable to new cases. In contrast, the cognitive flexibility theory focuses on the nature of learning in ill-structured, poorly defined situations, which typifies real life situations. The theory is largely concerned with learners having the ability to transfer knowledge they have constructed and skills they have acquired beyond the initial learning situation. Flexible learning environments are required for learners to develop cognitively flexible processing skills. These learning environments must permit the same items of knowledge to be presented and learned in a variety of different ways and for a variety of different purposes. By virtue of the flexibility it can provide, the computer domain is ideally suited for fostering cognitive flexibility in ways that traditional teaching methods and modes cannot. This desire for multiple perspectives and knowledge criss-crossing is well supported in the Internet environment, especially using the hypermedia of the World Wide Web in conjunction with on line discussion tools and chat rooms (Spiro et al.; Spiro et al.