• The strongest point of persuasion is self persuasion
• The activity of creating, reinforcing, modifying, or extinguishing beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations, & or behaviors
• Another word for persuasion is rhetoric
• Use evidence when persuading someone “ethos, pathos, logos” which is credibility, reasoning, emotional appeal
• Persuasion is pervasive Infer/Attitude
• Attitude is a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward some attitude object
• Attitude is learned
• Attitude dictates behavior
• Predisposition to respond- precede & direct peoples action
• In order to change behavior you must change a persons attitude
• We infer peoples attitudes by appearance, association, and behavior
• Instumental function: were learning about persuasion so we can become more effective persuaders. We refer to this as the instrumental function of persuasion because persuasion serves as an instrument, or a means to an end
• Debunking function: alerting you to persuasion myths
• reason for studying persuasion is that it serves a debunking function.
• The study of human influence can aid in dispelling various “common sense” assumptions and “homespun” notions about persuasion.
Burke/identification: According to Burke, explain identification as it related to persuasion:
• The foundation of understanding persuasion is identification
• Larson says we need co-creation; meaning people need to persuade themselves
• Identification: speaker & content o Presenting 1 side of a message is easier to present to people who are not well informed or educated o If you present to a well informed intelligent ppl, then u need 2 sides to a story o If you present fear to a public, the public will block it out & not wanna hear
• It is unethical to target vulnerable groups
• White lies may be beneficial for relationships
• Threats are unethical b/c they create a state of pyscological distress in receivers
• Fear appeals should never be used if the alleged harms are exagerrated or worse yet, fabricated
• Emotional appeals are unethical if they are used to contradict sound reasoning and evidence
• Insincere compliments are unethical
FREE MARKET ETHICS:
• This ethical approach is based on the metaphor of the free market or capitalism: caveat emptor, let the buyer beware.
• There should be little or no prior restraint on persuasive messages.
• This approach places greater responsibility on receivers to critically evaluate persuasive messages.
• Self interest paramount.
• The self-interest of the persuader is all that matters; others better watch out for themselves. Suckers deserve what they get. They should learn from their mistakes.
• Inherent rightness or wrongness of intentions
• An ethical approach that focuses on moral imperatives rather than specific consequences
• An ethical approach that focuses on moral imperatives, rather than specific consequences.
• A person has a duty to adhere to rules of moral conduct.
• One may be morally obliged to take some actions, regardless of their consequences.
• Pycological imbalance caused by fear of losing: o Group prestige o Economic loss o Personal prestige o Uncertainty of prediction
• Or creating a sense of guilt from disapproving judgement from peers, family, deity
BACK TO CONSISTENCY BY OFFERING:
• Reasurrance of security (buying products, homeland insurance)
• Demonstration of predictability (extended warranties)
• Use of rewards (reinforcement, complaints)
THEORY OF REASONED ACTION
• the TRA assumes that people are rational decision makers who make use of all the information available to them.
• Best to start with the end of the story, the endpoint of the theory is a person’s overt behavior, what she or he actually does.
• But what shapes a person’s behavior? The theory presumes that intentions are the best guide…