Essay Concept Comparison and Analysis Across Theories

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Concept Comparison and Analysis Across Theories
October, 22, 2012
Delores Diehl

Concept Comparison and Analysis Across Theories
Nursing is a science that has many theories to support the beliefs and clinical practice of the profession. One core concept prevalent in many nursing theories is caring. Theorist Jean Watson and Madeleine Leininger are both nursing theorists who developed theories around caring and nursing. The subject of discussion in this paper is the comparison and analysis of the concept definitions of Jean Watson’s Theory of Philosophy and Science of Caring and Madeleine Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality of nursing. Also included is an in-depth discussion of Jean Watson’s theory and
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Jean Watson’s theory has been a continuing evolution for over 20 years. Watson’s theory has three major elements. They are the carative (caring) factors, the transpersonal caring relationship, and the caring occasion or caring moment (Current Nursing: Nursing theories, 2012). In Watson’s theory carative is used to contrast curative as seen in medicine’s curative environment (Current Nursing: Nursing theories, 2012). Originally there were 10 carative factors that gave the foundation for understanding how important the concept of caring is to the science of nursing. Those carative factors are later replaced through evolution of the theory with clinical caritas processes and serve as guidelines for practicing caring in nursing (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2012). There are four metaparadigms found in most all nursing theories. Those four metaparadigms are human being, health, environment, and nursing (Current Nursing: Nursing theories, 2012). Watson uses these metaparadigms in her theory. Watson’s theory views human being as a “fully functional integrated self” (Current Nursing: Nursing theories, 2012, p. 4). Health is viewed as defined by the World Health Organization with Watson’s additions to the definition of having a “high level of overall physical, mental, and social functioning, a general