Chapters 1 – 9, 12 – 17
1a) What distinguishes a scientific theory from a simple claim?
1b) Is a theory always true?
2a) What is the difference between an organism and a population?
2b) By definition, what makes something alive?
3a) What are emergent properties, and how are they important to the study of biology? Give an example of an emergent property.
3b) What is reductionism, and how is it limiting to the study of biology? What is meant by systems biology?
3c) Starting with molecules, outline the hierarchy of life up to the biosphere.
1) What are valence electrons, and how do they account for activity among atoms?
2a) What is an ionic bond? What is a covalent bond? What is meant by the term molecule?
2b) What is the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds? Give an example of a molecule for each.
2c) Once a molecule is formed by covalent bonding, what determines how it will react with other molecules?
3a) What are Van der Waals forces?
3b) What is hydrogen bonding? Give an example of hydrogen bonding between molecules.
4) What is a chemical reaction?
1a) Explain how the polarity of individual water molecules gives rise to water’s emergent properties essential to life.
1b) What is meant by cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension?
1c) Explain why water has a relatively high boiling point compared to other substances.
1d) Why does ice float in water? How is this fact important for lake water life?
2a) What happens to ionic compounds when exposed to water? What is a hydration shell?
2b) Label the following bonds as either strong or weak in the presence of water: ionic bonds, covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals forces.
2c) What is meant by the terms hydrophilic and hydrophobic? What kinds of molecules are hydrophilic? What kinds are hydrophobic? Are ions hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
3a) What are acids and bases?
3b) What is pH? What is pOH? What units are they measured in? What is the sum of the pH and the pOH for any given water based solution?
Know the specific properties of water and what they mean. You should also be able to calculate pH and pOH of solutions with actual numbers.
1) What properties of carbon make it ideal for forming large molecules?
2a) What accounts for the diversity of interactions of carbon-based molecules?
2b) Draw and label each of the seven functional groups, including charges where applicable.
3a) What is an isomer? Define structural isomers, cis-trans isomers, and enantiomers.
3b) How do isomers differ in chemical reactivity?
Know the chart on pages 64 – 65 in the textbook!
1) What are monomers, and how are they combined into polymers? What type of bonds hold polymers together? How are polymers broken back down into monomers?
2a) What are carbohydrates? What are monomers of carbohydrates called? What are polymers of carbohydrates called? What is the bond between carbohydrate monomers called?
2b) What are the functions of carbohydrates to living things?
2c) In what ways can organisms store energy using carbohydrates?
3a) What are nucleic acids composed of? What is a nucleoside? What is the bond called that holds nucleic acids together?
3b) What accounts for the uniformed width of DNA molecules?
4a) What distinguishes lipids from other organic molecules?
4b) What types of molecules are considered lipids?
4c) What is the difference between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids?
4d) What type of bond links fatty acids to glycols?
4e) What are phospholipids? What structure do they form that is essential to life?
5a) What is an amino acid? What two functional groups do all amino acids share? What accounts for the differing reactivity of the various amino acids?
5b) What is the name of the bond that…