Obtaining a phonetic inventory in each language will aid in clinical decision-making and help to determine whether to take a phonetic or phonological approach to intervention.
Feeding lays the foundation for oral motor/articulation therapy, which is performed for the purpose of gaining accuracy for isolated vowel and consonant production. If a child has no vowels or consonants or a
“limited” repertoire of vowels or consonants, or weak/imprecise productions, oral-motor therapy helps the child acquire speech sounds, or gain accuracy for speech intelligibility.
Oral Desensitization For Feeding & Mouth Activities These include general assessment and treatment of a child's sensory issues in relation to feeding and oral motor function techniques.
The activities include use of tactile & body sensory activities. It is a slow, systematic approach to changing color, form, taste and textures of foods to enhance a child's food repertoire. Deep pressure touch protocol to the mouth is used to allow the child the ability to participate in more intense types of oral motor activities.
Oral Craniosacral Therapy Craniosacral techniques to localize restrictions and restore normal motion to the bones of the face and mouth. A restriction is an impairment of normal physiological motion within the body. By normalizing motion of the structures of the mouth, children are able to integrate sensory motor and oral motor activities on a more aligned structural base.
TalkTools® Sara Rosenfeld-Johnson, SLP of Tucson, Arizona, has developed tools for improving oral strength (lips, tongue and jaw), refining of tongue placement required for articulation, and enhancing breath support for adequate respiration, phonation and resonation, all required for speech skills. These “tools” come in the form of various horns and straws, each with a particular skill in mind to acquire. The program also uses functional and fun exercises. The tools and exercises are also recommended for home programs to ensure best results.
Beckman Oral-Motor Intervention Debra Beckman, SLP, Orlando, Florida has developed noninvasive quick muscle stretches and deep tissue releases for the face and mouth. These releases help to decrease frenulum tissue restrictions inhibiting range of movement of the lips, cheeks and tongue, take minutes to occur, and are completed with a comfortable light touch in the mouth. The quick muscle stretches are meant to facilitate muscle contraction and are followed by active exercises to gain strength and function. The stretches are given to the tiny muscles of the face and mouth, are also non-invasive and light in application. These techniques are used in home programs with instruction for best results.
Articulation Disorder is a general term referring to how accurately consonants and vowels are produced in isolation. If there are errors in the production of consonants or vowels, a speech and language pathologist would attempt to determine the cause of these errors. Typically they are rooted in oral structural deviations or differences or weak oral musculature. There are other reasons for producing phonemes in error such as hearing loss, auditory linguistic processing disorders (phonological disorders) and motor-planning (apraxia of speech). Usually articulation errors do not change due to context. Faulty production of isolated consonants or vowels can be difficult to change as the errors can become habitual over time. The individual would need to be aware of the errors and be taught how to produce these phonemes accurately, starting with isolation and moving into maintenance in context. Traditional speech therapy would be employed, with the use of high motivational rewards and a great deal of practice!
The following are a few examples of an articulatory disorder:
Frontal and lateral lisps