History of Consciousness * Psychology began as a science of Consciousness. * Behaviorists argued about alienating Consciousness from psychology * However, after 1960, mental concepts (Consciousness) started reentering psychology
Neuroscience & Consciousness Neuroscientists believe that consciousness emerges from the interaction of individual brain events much like a chord that is created from different musical notes.
Forms of Consciousness Consciousness, modern psychologists believe, is an awareness of ourselves & our environment.
State of Consciousness * Consciousness- Selective attention to ongoing perceptions, thoughts, and feelings * Attention- Spotlight of Consciousness * Controlled processes * Full attention * Self Awareness * Automatic Processes * Little awareness or attention
* Selective Attention- (focus on one thing but be able to switch attention to something else.) * Focus of conscious awareness or a particular stimulus * “Cocktail Party Effect”
Refers to the inability to see an object or a person in our midst when our attention is directed else where.
Sleep and Dreams * Sleep * Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness * Measuring sleep activity * Left, right eye movement * EMG (muscle tension) * EEG (brain waves)
Sleep Deprivation * Effects of sleep loss * Fatigue * impaired concentration * immune suppression * irritability * Slaved performance * accidents * planes * autos & trucks
Sleep Stages Measuring sleep: about every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of five district sleep stages.
Aware & Alert During strong mental engagement, the brain exhibits low amplitude and fast, irregular beta waves (15-49 cps). An awake person involved in a conversation shows beta activity.
Awake but Relaxed When an individual closes his eyes but remains awake, his brain activity slows down to a large amplitude and slow, regular alpha waves (9-14 cps), A meditating person exhibits an alpha brain activity.
Sleep stage 1-2 During early, light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain enters a high amplitude, slow, regular waveform called theta wave (5-8cps). A person who is day dreaming show theta activity.
Sleep Stage 1 Hypnagogic Stage * Transition between waking and sleep * Visual Hallucinations * Auditory Hallucinations * Sense of falling (Myoclnoic jerk)
Sleep Stage 3-4
During deepest sleep (stages 3-4), brain activity slows down. There are large-amplitude, slows delta waves (1.5-4 cps)
Facts about Dreaming 1. All mammals dream 2. Human fetus has REM Periods 3. Older people spend less time dreaming 4. Younger people spend more time dreaming. 5. Mental or physical activity increases REM sleep.
All dream researchers believe we need REM sleep, when deprived of REM Sleep and then allowed to sleep, we show increased REM sleep called REM Rebound.
WHY WE DREAM?
Physiological function * Dreams provide the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation to develop and pressure neural pathways. * Neural Networks of new born are quickly developing therefore, they need more sleep and dreams
Cognitive development * Some researchers argue that we dream as a part of brain maturation and cognitive development. * Knowledge and Understanding
Information Processing * Dreams may help shift, sort, and fix a days experiences in our memories.
Activation-Synthesis Theory * Suggest that the brain engages in a lot of random neural activity * Dreams make sense of this activity * Visual cortex * Limbic system * Auditory