price, product, place promotion
STP: Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning
Demographic: statistics that measure observable aspects of a population, such as birth rate, age distribution, and income
Psychographic: differences in consumer’s personalities, attitudes, values, and lifestyles.
Primary research (survey, focus groups, interviews, observational/qualitative/experimental research), secondary research
Needs: a motivating force that compels action for its satisfaction
Wants: the particular form of consumption chosen to satisfy a need
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): when firm voluntarily choose to protect or enhance their positive social and environmental impacts as they go about heir business activities.
Cause related-marketing involves collaboration between a for profit business and a non-profit organization for mutual benefit; cause marketing differs from corporate giving (philanthropy) in that cause marketing is not solely based on donations
Transformative Consumer Research (TCR): promotes research projects that include goal of helping people or brining about social change.
Sensation is the immediate response of our sensory receptors to such basic stimuli as light, color, and sound.
Perception is the process by which these sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted.
Sensory thresholds & just noticeable difference:
The absolute threshold refers to the minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a sensory channel. The differential threshold refers to the ability of a sensory system to detect changes in a stimulus or differences between two stimuli. The minimum change in a stimulus that can be detected is also known as the JND (just noticeable difference), formula on page 46
Attention refers to the extent to which the brain’s processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus.
Adaptation is the degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over time
Interpretation refers to the meanings that people assign to sensory stimuli.
Schema is an organized collection of beliefs and feelings represented in a cognitive category
Script is a learned schema containing a sequence of events an individual expects to occur
Gestalt psychology is a school of thought that maintains people derive meaning from the totality of a set of stimuli rather than from any individual stimulus.
Behavioral learning: The perspectives on learning that assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events
Classical conditioning: The learning that occurs when a stimulus eliciting a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own but will cause a similar response over time because of its association with the first stimulus. (Pavlov’s dog)
Associative learning: Learning that occurs when the consumer makes simple associations between stimuli, without more complex cognitive processes taking place.
Advertising wear-out: The condition that occurs when consumers become so used to hearing or seeing a marketing stimulus that they no longer pay attention to it.
Stimulus generalization: the process that occurs when the behavior caused by a reaction to one stimulus occurs in the presence of other, similar stimuli.
Operant conditioning: the process by which the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and to avoid those that yield negative outcomes
Punishments: occur when a response is followed by an unpleasant event. Positive & negative reinforcement: When the environment provides positive reinforcement in the form of reward, the response is strengthened and appropriate behavior is learned. Negative reinforcement removes something negative in a way that increases the desired response.
Shaping: occurs when consumers are rewarded for successive steps taken toward the desired