Cornells exam review Essay

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Chapter 24

1. What was Roosevelt’s strongest asset for restoring confidence to the American public?
-Optimism and ability in public relations

2. What was Roosevelt’s first action after taking office?
-Persuading Congress to pass Emergency Banking Act, close banks for 4 day holiday

3. How did the AAA of 1933 permanently change the economic structure of American agriculture?
-Subsides to the point of parity

4. What did Roosevelt’s administration replace the AAA with when the Supreme Court struck it down?
-Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act

5. What was one of the most successful New Deal programs for farmers?
-Rural Electrification

6. What was the primary intent of the National Recovery Act?
-Keep prices stable on industrial goods

7. On what political theory was the TVA based?
-That federal government should be chief architect of economic planning

8. What was the objective of the CCC?
-Created jobs for millions of young men who could not find work in cities

9. How did the National Labor Relations Act protect workers?
-To replace NRA, had power to compel employers to recognize and bargain with legitimate unions

10. How did the creation of the CIO change the labor movement?
-Organized by industry not craft (AFL), directly rivaled AFL be admitting women, blacks, unskilled, targeted unorganized industries, more militant than AFL

11. Why was the “Memorial Day Massacre” of 1937 significant?
-Republic Steel South Chicago, police opened fire on marchers, strike failed, 10 killed, 90 wounded

12. What were the thoughts of the original creator of social security?
-As “insurance” benefits based on those who earned money by making contributions

13. How did the WPA compare to other federal work relief agencies?
-Largest and most permanent employer

14. What groups composed Roosevelt’s new Democratic coalition in 1936?
-Urban working class, southern rural whites, northern urban blacks, traditional progressives

15. What was the final outcome of Roosevelt’s “court packing” plan?
-Supreme Court stopped overturning New Deal legislation but the New Deal coalition had been splintered

16. What caused the “Roosevelt recession”?
-FDR’s decision to cut spending

17. What is the “broker state” that developed during the New Deal era?

18. Why did black Americans become strong supporters of the Democratic Party during the New Deal?

19. What was the “black cabinet”?
-Civil rights activists who influenced Eleanor and Franklin Roosevelt

20. How did the New Deal address the interests of women?

21. How did the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 change government policy towards tribes?
-Returning political authority to the tribe and allowing them to own land collectively

22. What was the most profound and long-lasting effect of the New Deal on American politics?

Chapter 25

1. What were the points of the treaty from the Washington Conference of 1921?
-US proposed/obtained a treaty to prevent a naval arms race among major world powers, plan proposed reduction of fleets and 10 year moratorium on large warships.

2. What was the purpose of the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
-Sec. of state Frank Kellogg proposed a multilateral treaty outlawing war as an instrument of national policy.

3. What steps did Roosevelt take in the mid-1930s attempting to reverse the economic situation?
-FDR refused to agree on currency stabilization, 1934 signed a bill forbidding US to loan any nation on default debts.

4. What did the Sino-Japanese war foreshadow?

5. What did Roosevelt do during 1940 and 1941 despite the US’s official neutrality?

6. What resulted from Roosevelt’s recognition of the Soviet Union in 1933?

7. What was the new approach called for the US non-intervention in Latin America affairs?

8. What did Roosevelt urge in his “quarantine speech?”
-Aggressors should be “quarantined” by international community to prevent contagion