Essay on Course: Chemistry and Chemical Equilibrium

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Lehman College
City University of New York
Department of Chemistry

CHE 168 General Chemistry II

Professor Marc S. Lazarus Office Hours: Mon. 2:00pm -3:00pm
Office Location: Davis Hall 336
Telephone: 718-960-8843, e-mail:

Course Description

CHE 168: General Chemistry II. 3 hours, 3 credits. Continuation of CHE 166 or 106: the presentation of the fundamental laws and theories of chemistry in considerable depth. PREREQ: CHE 166 or 104 and 106 (or equivalent as approved by the Chair). COREQ: CHE 169.

Place of course in degree program

This course is a degree program requirement for the Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biology programs. This course is recommended to premedical, pre-veterinary, and pre-dental students.

Academic or Learning Objectives

Students will:
Demonstrate an understanding of the gas laws and how to apply those laws to chemical reactions.
Describe intermolecular forces and their effects on the behavior of liquids and solids.
Explain the different types of solids and their characteristics and be able to do calculations using cubic unit cells.
Be able to explain phase diagrams.
Demonstrate an understanding of the solution process.
Be able to calculate and use the solution concentration units; molality, mole fraction, and weight percent to determine the magnitude of colligative properties of solutions.
Understand rates of reaction and the conditions affecting rates including the collision theory of reaction rates and the role of activation energy.
Relate reaction mechanisms and rate laws.
Understand the nature and characteristics of chemical equilibria and how to use K, the equilibrium constant, and Q, the reaction quotient, in quantitative studies of chemical equilibria.
Use the Brønsted– Lowry and Lewis theories of acids and bases.
Recognize common monoprotic and polyprotic acids and bases, and write balanced equations for their ionization in water.
Apply the principles of chemical equilibrium to acids and bases in aqueous solution.
Do calculations involving the common ion effect and how it describes the functioning of buffers in aqueous solution.
Apply chemical equilibrium concepts to the solubility of ionic compounds.
Calculate the solubility of a salt in the presence of a common ion.
Understand the concept of entropy and its relationship to reaction spontaneity.
Calculate the change in entropy for system, surroundings, and the universe to determine whether a process is spontaneous.
Use the Gibbs free energy to understand the connection between enthalpy and entropy changes and spontaneity. Understand the principles underlying voltaic cells
Understand how to use electrochemical potentials to determine spontaneity of electrochemical cells.
Use the Nernst equation to calculate the cell potential under nonstandard conditions.
Explore electrolysis, the use of electrical energy to produce chemical change.

Required Readings

Text: J.C. Kotz, P.M. Treichel and J.R. Townsend, Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity, 8th Ed. Thomson, Brooks/Cole, 2009. 2012,
Lehman College Special Edition ISBN 978-1-133-43704-8
Or the Regular Edition ISBN 978-0-8400-4828-8

Course Requirements and Grading

Each student’s grade will be determined by counting each regular exam as 20% of the final grade and the final exam as 40% of the final grade. In the event a student misses a regular exam, the 20% for that exam will be included in the final exam. In other words, if a student were to miss exam 2 each of the remaining 2 exams would count for 20% each of the final grade and that student’s final exam would count 60%. No make-up exams will be given.
Attendance Policy

Students should be present at every class.
A student cannot miss more than one regular exam.

Academic Integrity

See the Lehman Undergraduate Bulletin.

Course Topics