Cranial Nerves and Spinal Accessory Nerve Essay

Submitted By kgelasio
Words: 2484
Pages: 10

Lecture Test 2 is 100 pts in a multiple choice, matching, T/F & diagrammatic format. So you need a pencil, eraser & scantron.
No assistive devices of any sort. Test starts at the beginning of our regular class time and you will have 100 minutes to complete it.

Chapt 9
3 types of muscle & locations
1) Skeletal Muscle
2) Cardiac Muscle
3) Smooth Muscle
4 functions of muscles
1) Movement of bones or fluids
2) Maintaining posture and body position
3) Stabilizing Joints
4) Heat Generation
Epimysium is the one direct attachment of muscle to bone; tendon & aponeurosis are the 2 indirect attachments
Descending order of size of structure when constructing a muscle: 1) Muscle 2) Muscle fascicle 3) Muscle fiber/cell 4) Myofibril 5) Myofilaments
Myofilaments are 1) actin = thin filament and 2) myosin = thick filament
Sarcomere definition & structure Def: Smallest contractile unit of a muscle fiber. Has Thick/thin filaments. Z-disc, h-zone and m line.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum location & function
Network of smooth E.R functions in regulation of intracellular Ca2+
Concept of nervous stimulus at the Neuromuscular Junction & what comprises the motor unit Nerve impulse @axon terminal, Ach released. Binds to sarcolemma and electrical events lead to action potential.
Chapt 10
Concept of prime movers, antagonists, synergists & fixators
Prime movers provide major force for a movement
Antagonists = oppose/reverse movement
Synergist= add force to movement, reduce undesirable movement
Fixators immobilze a bone or muscle/s origin
Muscle groups, individual names, locations & PRIMARY functions (see list)
Notes to help remember muscles
Epicranius w/ Gala Aponeurotica (Frontalis & Occipitalis) raise eyebrows & pull scalp posterior
Facial nerve, CN VII
Obicularis Occulii
Closes eye
Facial nerve, CN VII
Obicularis Oris
Closes lips
Facial nerve, CN VII
Compresses Cheek, assists during chewing
Facial nerve, CN VII
6 extrinsic Mm of eye (4 rectus & 2 oblique) p. 550 on 2nd lab test voluntary eye movements
Cranial Nerve innervation mnemonic LR6 SO4 RR 3
Elevates mandible
Trigeminal nerve, CN V
Elevates & retracts mandible
Trigeminal nerve, CN V
Medial & lateral Pterygoids (unable to see these superficially)
Synergist that promotes side to side motion of mandible
Trigeminal nerve, CN V
Tongue - Genioglossus
Movement of tongue for speech, chew and swallow
Hypoglossal nerve, CN XII
Suprahyoid Muscles - Pg 334 in text Table 10.3 Group Function
Elevate hyoid & larynx during swallow Infrahyoid Muscle - Pg 334 in text Table 10.3 Group Function
Depress hyoid&larynx with swallow/speak Platysma (on cadaver)
Tenses skin of anterior neck and depresses mandible Sternocleidomastoid Muscle ( SCM)
Unilateral action rotate&flex;Bilateral action neck flexion
Spinal accessory nerve, CN XI
Scalenes (ant, middle & post) - respiratory system
Elevate ribs 1&2 these are "Accessory Muscles of respiration"
Splenius (Capitus/Cervicis) - Pg337 Fig10.9 b)
Extend head and neck Erector Spinae (iliocostalis,longissimus&spinalis) - Pg 339 Fig 10.9
Extend spine
"I LOVE SPINE"; semispinalis is synergistic with these muscles
Primary muscle of respiration
Phrenic nerve, C3/C4/C5 "keeps the diaphragm alive"
External Intercostal
Elevate rib cage for Inspiration
EX goes with IN
Internal Intercostals
Draws ribs together for forced expiration
IN goes with EX
Rectus Abdominus
Flexes spine and trunk External Oblique
Rotates spine & trunk Internal Oblique
Rotates spine & trunk Transversus Abdominus
Compresses abdominal contents Pelvic Diaphragm (Levator Ani & Ischiococcygeus)
Resist inferior force of cough, sneeze, bowel mov't, birth
Helps form external anal sphincter (unable to see these superficially)
Elevates scapula & extend head/neck
Spinal accessory nerve, CN XI
Levator Scapulae
Elevates scapula