Criminal Justice and Society Essay

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Criminal Justice and Society
CRJ 201
Melissa King

I. Corrections is most relevant to the Eighth Amendment of the . The Eight Amendment, which states, “Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.” This prohibiting the federal government from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines or cruel and unusual punishments, including torture. Laws should be applied to persons equally, without discrimination on prohibited grounds, such as gender, nationality, handicap, or age. In criminal cases, fair procedures help to ensure that an accused person will not be subjected to cruel and unusual punishment (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eighth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution&oldid=634211903).
II. One theory that is based on why crime occurs and how corrections use it is the social learning theory. This basically states we are a product of our environment and that crime is learned. For example, if a person grows up in a neighborhood of crime, where his/her parents have a criminal history, it is more than likely he or she will end up committing a crime as well. Going to jail or prison would probably not be an issue for them, because he/she only knows this sort of lifestyle, and probably expected this outcome in their future ( Smith, 2012). Another theory that is based on the cause of crime is conflict theory. This theory is based on the conflict of opposite groups. For example, the poor against the rich, the blacks against the whites, men against the women, and so on and so forth. So, if a black man and a white man are both applying for the same job position, and the white man gets hired, this could cause the black man to get upset and look at this as a racial issue. He could end up hurting the white man, and this could cause him to get arrested and sentenced to jail ( Smith, 2012).
III One of the main issues that face corrections professionals on a regular basis is racial profiling. There is no question that "The dynamics surrounding an encounter between a police officer and a black male are quite different from those that surround an encounter between an officer and the so-called average reasonable person (23 St. Thomas L. Rev. 576)." Another issue is the theory of crime. Whether it is drug trafficking, cyber crimes, money laundering, etc. The issue of knowing why and how some people commit crimes and some don’t has raised an issue in society (Security Management. August, 1997, Vol. 41 Issue 8, p117, 2 p.). The last issue would be police corruption. “Police corruption comes in many forms. In the worst cases, it can involve officers breaking the law, including murdering suspects, beating people, and fabricating evidence to substantiate a criminal charge” (Wright, 2012).

Introduction
Corrections professionals must execute justice by upholding the law in an ethical and constitutional manner. In this paper we will Identify and explain which parts of the Constitution of the United States are most relevant to the ethical standards of corrections professionals. Explain how corrections professionals ensure that they uphold the Constitution. Analyze the ways in which corrections professionals use the social justice principles of equality, solidarity, and human rights to build a more just society. Explain why people commit crimes and explain how corrections professionals use criminal theory in their practice. Also,…