The Changing Boundaries of Criminology
1. Explain the seven forms of transnational criminality that are in the wheel of terrorism, and explain their relationship to terrorism.
First we have illicit drug trafficking where we find a great deal of terrorist activities involved because it gives them an easy access to large funds of money. Money laundering is also a part of transnational criminality where we get drug money transformed into clean money. Infiltration of legal business is when we have the dirty money transferred to clean money by establishing a business to pretend that the money is coming from legitimate sources. Computer crime is where we use cyberspace to get informations through the internet and also to transfer funds. Illicit arms trafficking is where we have a clandestine market to sell arms mostly to terrorists. Trafficking in persons is when we use slave work by smuggling immigrants to our country and getting them involved in criminal activities. Finally we have destruction of cultural property where we get terrorists destroying cultural symbols.
2. Explain the similarities and differences between deviance and crime, and provide examples.
Deviance is when we have someone violating social norms and laws. An example would be a house burgarly. Crime is when we have a human behavior violating a criminal law where we give a punishment. An example would be speeding tickets.
3. Contrast the consensus model and conflict model of law and crime. Consensus model is where we have model of criminal lawmaking that assumes that members of society agree on what is right and wrong and that law is the codification of agreed-upon social values. While a conflict model is where the criminal justice system is seemed as being used by the ruling class to control the lower class.
4. Discuss Edwin Sutherland’s definition of criminology and why criminology can be described as a multidiscipline.
Criminology is referred to as the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. It can also be described as multidiscipline because it includes the process of making laws and breaking laws.
5. Raffaele Garofalo coined the term “criminology” in 1885.
6. Criminology is not an empirical science.
7. The term “deviance” describes behavior that violates social norms.
8. Conflict theorists view society as a stable entity in which laws are created for the general good.
9. Crime has become globalized.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
10. According to the wheel of terrorism, which is not a transnational crime that is directly relevant to terrorism?
a. illicit arms trafficking
b. money laundering
c. animal poaching
d. computer crime
11. Who initially coined the term “criminology” in 1885?
a. Cesare Lombroso
b. Raffaele Garofalo
c. Enrico Ferri
d. Paul Topinard
12. Edwin H. Sutherland mandated that criminologists, like all other scientists, collect information for study and analysis in accordance with
a. the research methods of modern science.
c. the law.
d. what the research design will allow.
13. Which one of the following disciplines is related to criminology?
c. Political science
d. all of these
14. Criminology is the scientific study of
a. the making of laws.
b. the breaking of laws.
c. society’s reaction to the breaking of laws.
d. all of these
15. Natural-law philosophers believed that
a. some forms of behavior are innately criminal.
b. homicide and theft should not be universally condemned.
c. criminology is narrowly focused on crime.
d. none of these
16. All early societies punished acts that were detrimental to their existence, such as
17. Which of the following is considered to be the earliest complete legal code in existence?
a. The Roman Law