The Crusades were a series of military expeditions by European Christians to reclaim the areas of the Holy Land that had been captured by Muslim forces. The Crusades were mainly fought between Roman Catholic forces and Muslim forces. The Crusades had an original goal of reclaiming Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslim Empire. Despite the fact that the Crusades failed their original goal, they had both positive and negative lasting effects on Europe. Although the Crusades failed, they had a major positive impact on Western Europe. The crusaders brought back valuable goods that many Europeans had not seen before, sparking an interest in trade. The Crusades helped end feudalism in a few ways. First, many nobles that went to fight, died without leaving an heir to their lands, and so they were passed to the king. Second, some nobles sold their land to try and raise money to pay the tax that was raised by the king to help fund the Crusades. Third, some nobles gave their serfs a chance to buy their freedom to raise money. The Crusades reduced the work force of the feudal system and increased the power of the monarchs, causing its demise. By causing this burst in intelligence and learning, the Crusades helped bring about the Renaissance. The last beneficial effect of the Crusades was the increase of trading and commerce. They created a constant need for men and supplies, encouraging shipbuilding, ways to travel, and spreading trade west. The Crusaders brought back many goods that had not yet been seen in Europe like silk, spices, and sugar. Despite the fact that the Crusades had many positive influences on Europe, there were also many negative results. Some of the negatives effects of the Crusades were; the exposure to disease, especially the plague, the fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire, and the large amounts of death throughout Europe. By traveling through foreign lands, the crusaders had to endure many diseases that they were not familiar to and had not developed immunity. One example, Malaria, which was more common in the Middle East than in Europe, cause many soldiers to die. The most serious disease spread throughout the middle ages was the…
The word Byzantine came from Byzantium, an old Greek colony founded by a man named Byzas, the origins of this great civilization of Byzantine can be traced to 330 A.D(history.com 2013)as when Constantine the roman emperor split the Empire, the eastern Roman Empire was now known as the Byzantine Empire. “This empire flourished during the reign of the Macedonian Emperors and lasted for more than thousand…
where the 1st crusade was called from Urban II
Hugh Capet- 987 was elected by nobles as KOF because he was seen as weak; made the throne hereditary; created Capetian dynasty that would rule for 300 years; built an efficient bureaucracy; gained backing of Middle Class
Philip II ( Augustus)- 1179 became KOF; was the first king to use the title “King Of France”; granted royal charters; imposed national tax; quadrupled royal land holdings; went on 3rd crusade; carried out Albigensian crusade at the behest…
With the accession of Charles to the Spanish throne, Spain suddenly acquired large swathes of land in central and northern Europe (Austria, the Netherlands, Burgundy and chunks of Germany). In spite of a hefty inheritance received from his Spanish ancestors, Charles I of Hapsburgs exceeded his expenditures due to goals set by him as Holy Roman Emperor (HRE): commitment to Christendom, war with the Turks, fights with the French neighbours.
To begin with one of Charles I goals was the commitment…
Major civilizations started to develop and become dominant around 3000 BCE, including Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia literally means, “land between the rivers”, the rivers were the Tigris and the Euphrates. A series of ancient civilizations thrived along their banks. Mesopotamia is part of a larger area of relatively arable land known as the Fertile Crescent, which extends westward from Mesopotamia toward the Mediterranean. Unfortunately, the flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates…
The Rise of The Ottoman Empire
By: Hunter Starr
HIST 130: Muslim History From the Rise of Islam to 1500 CE
November 27, 2007.
The Ottoman Turks emerged on the periphery of the Byzantine Empire and the Saljuk Turks. Under a Turkish Muslim warrior named Osman, raids were conducted in western Anatolia on Byzantine settlements and a vast number of Turks were united under his banner. Those Turks who flocked to Osman's banner and followed him into the history books came to be…
Roman general, statesman, Consul, and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Second Triumvirate= A coalition formed by Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian.
Octavian (Emperor Augustus)= Was the founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian Octavii family.
Barbarian Invasions (Franks, Goths, New Persians)
Queen Zenobia of Palmyra: revolt to against Roman Empire, build her own small city.
Aurelian (270‑275) = "The Restorer of the World"
Wall of Aurelian- protection (fear they could not against invasion)
LATE ROMAN EMPIRE (284‑480)= Late Antiquity
Diocletian (284‑305): (another soldier emperor)
Policies to help the empire survive
"Lord and Master": make emperor more distinct
Removes all power from the Senate:no…
years the power began to transfer. II.) The significance of the crusade marked the transformation of Europe from the Dark Ages. It tested the power of the Papacy and the reach of EU’s power, which also weakened feudalism. The emperor of Byzantine wrote to the pope in 1095 asking for protection of his people and all Christians. In November 1095, pope Urban II asked and audience in Clermont, France to form a voluntary army. The first crusade was mostly the wealthy. The crusaders massacred Jews on the way…
(2) Set up postal service
(3) Issued coins to make trade easier
iv) First emperor
b) Pax Romana
i) “Roman Peace”
ii) 200 year span from Augustus to Marcus Aurelis
iii) Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to lands stretching from Euphrates River in the east to Britain in the west
i) First Pope
ii) Greatest apostle
iii) Goes to Rome
iv) Killed by Nero
v) Knew Christ personally
i) A Jew from Asia Minor
ii) Played the most influential…
ruled, and imprinted with a lasting influence from the Roman Empire. At its greatest extent, the Roman Empire stretched east to include Greece, Turkey, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia; it stretched south to encompass Africa north of the Sahara from the Atlantic to Egypt; and, it stretched north and west in Europe with its frontiers on the Danube and the Rhine and included Great Britain south of Scotland and Hadrian's Wall. This great empire crumbled for a variety of reasons including: internal political…