Essay on Crystal: Byzantine Empire and Mali Trade Gold

Submitted By crystalnim
Words: 1189
Pages: 5

Europe’s Early Middle Ages and Feudalism Greeks, Romans fall to Huns, Goths and Vandals- 5th century
Pain: civs break down
3 estates Manorial system Charlemagne and Holy Roman Empire Monks/ monasteries preserve knowledge/ civilizations till 12th century Invasion of Muslim Moors in Spain stopped by Charles the Hammer in 732 (Cordoba) Warfare:
Christians vs. Muslims
England vs. France
France vs. Germany
Christians vs. Barbarians (aka Mongols)
Pope vs. anyone who didn’t like him * Europe was NOT very civilized at the time—disgusting torture methods (iron maiden, etc)

RISE OF THE FRANKS Merovingians Became royalty b/c they claimed to be in Jesus’ lineage Franks under Clovis- 1st Germanic tribe to accept Christianity (496) Carolingians Pepin’s son Charles Martel (the Hammerer) mayor from 714-741 732- Charles defeats Muslims at Battle of Tours in Gaul; stopped advance in West
Son was Pepin le Bref (theShort)
Ruled jointly w/ bro
747- Pipin’s brother withdrew to monastery
Married Berthe au Grand Pied (Big Foot)
Son was Charlemagne Ruled 768-814 Pope Leo III crowned him Perator Romanorum (Emperor of Romans) on Xmas 800 AD (Through this Europe consolidated Power for 1st time) His right: promoted education, religion, built schools
Rise of Feudalism Empire crumbled after his death b/c his kids were also immoral/illiterate After disintegration, power lapsed into hands of landowners who’d been forces to submit to Charles Landowners had armies/ resources Three estates:
1. Priests
2. Nobles
3. Peasants
*No middle class
*No movement from one place to another b/c of danger No trade No change—static *Manor- place of residency for “big dog” Byzantium
Capital- Constantinople (falls in 1453 CE)
Threatened by several empires: Islam, Abyssids, Persians *Represent wealth and power
Ruin of Constantinople Blues vs. Green (532 under Justinian) Rival teams compete Fans had different religious and political views Justinian supported Blues Fight between fans- riots ruin Constantinople
Justinian Code (528 CE) Condensed from Roman Laws (down to 4652 laws) Changes: Rights- women, slaves, children (Theodora’s influence) “eye for eye” penalties Adopted for many legal systems
Justinian Reconstruction Increased defense of city 3 walls mote Wall on harbor Improvements Water system Street lights Sewer system baths Fire department theatres Churches palaces
Caesoropapism- rule politically and religiously (Islamic rulers *caliphs * also absolute)
Byzantine Economy and Society Constantinople- largest city (Europe) Dependent- small landholders, free peasants Theme system- reward soldiers; land grants (divide into military rule)
Decline- Free Peasantry Large landholdings increase Reduce tax revenues Reduce military recruits Decrease power
Manufacturing/Trade (almost word for word same as Islamic) Trade routes—technology Location—crafts, industry expand Tax revenues from