Cuba Notes * John Paul Jones II: pope used his fame to draw to the sufferings * Heroic figure; kind of Communist * Solidarity: dock workers’ union * Soviet Leadership: crackdown on the dock worker’s leadership * Brezhnev Doctrine: Communist version of the Truman Doctrine (containment of Communism) * Could have been the justification for the Soviets crushing the Hungarian uprising in 1986 * 1968: Prague Spring * 1979: End of détente when Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan * Strategic Defense Initiative: by Reagan; * Purpose: make nuclear weapons obsolete * Bargaining chips: Bluff * Gorbachev: * Glasnost: openness * Perestroika: economic reconstruction Cuba * “Flagship Colony”: leads the fleet…where the captain is on * Cuba’s main purpose: agriculture; * Most important product= sugar * Monoculture: export economy; export to sell in other parts of the world * Sugar Production: grows sugar cane * 1) Slaves cut w/ machete (manual labor) 2) Mill turns it into rum, sugar, or molasses * Size of farms and mills increased as technology increased * 10 Years War (1868-1878): War of Independence * “Shackles of the colonial system”: they can only pay taxes/ trade with their mother countries * Zenaphobia: fear/hatred of foreigners * Latter 1820’s: most of Latin America was free, except Cuba * Pact of Zan Holme: didn’t grant independence; regional autonomy to Cuba * US happy to trade with Cuba * 1878: lots of opportunities for US investments * Latifundio: hacienda system; underemployment and suffering of workers * McKinley Tariff Act: US-Cuba economic policy removing duty on sugar * Jose Marti: poet; Cuban nationalist * Formed Cuban revolution party; anti-Spanish movement * USS Maine: presumed attack in the Havana Harbor which was there to keep an eye on US interests…”friendly visit” * Age of Imperialism: US & UK interests= resources, precious goods, land, power * White Man’s Burden: satire by Rudyard Kipling * US had the same as the attitude as the British seen in HoD * Spanish American War (1895-1898): US won * Secretary of State: John Hay * American commanders clashed w/ the Cuban * More Americans dying from yellow fever than bullets * Secretary of the Navy: Teddy Roosevelt * Yellow Journalists exaggerated Roosevelt’s stories to make him look good * 1899-1902: US occupied Cuba * Goals of US occupations w/ use of Cuban Treasury: 1) Rebuild Cuba to help US investment (mostly sugar) * Mills, farms, latifundia, ports, ships, docks, gas, telegraph lines, banks, hotels, restaurants; * Chance to improve while rebuilding 2) Eradicate yellow fever by cleaning up water supplies, fumigate, & drain up swamps 3) Build educational system 4) Build police force & military system 5) Self-governing Protectorate/ Self-Autonomous Satellite: still controlled by the US 6) Constitution for Cuba: written by the US * Platt Amendment: US can intervene to protect Cuban independence * Est. Guantanamo Bay as a US naval base * Favorable for life and property * Post- Spanish- American War: More people becoming under-employed and landless * People don’t work enough hours * Most people worked on farms; rich continued to get richer * Mono-culture: rich can weather the storm, but the poor are greatly affected * # of mills drastically reduced; economic downtimes=cheap land * Poor being poor=opposition * Castro’s enemy= Batista * Emerged on political scene in 1933 (Revolution of 1933) * Batista was a sergeant who staged a coupe with the other officers; non-commissioned officer * Machado: overthrown by popular uprising in 1933; ruled as a ruthless dictator * Romon Grau: handed over the power under a provisional government * Too liberal in the eyes of US * His party= Autentico Party *
What ‘type’ of revolution was Castro’s revolution?
Relatively peaceful, It was political and popular.
What was America’s reaction to the Cuban revolution?
At first Eisenhower ignored it as he was “too busy”, after I became clear that Cuba was nationalist and had claimed foreign oil refineries. Over 1billion dollars’ worth. Eisenhower placed a trade embargo and started training Cuban exiles to be revolutionary terrorists. It was devastating and caused immense enmity, exiles trained to…
Castro’s actions from 1959-1962 affect the relationship between Cuba and the United States?
Fidel Castro rose to power in 1959 by overthrowing Cuba’s military dictatorship. Castro was a left-winged politician whose goal was to convert Cuba’s current right-winged government to communism. To develop a communist country, Castro took several actions, all of which negatively affected the relationship between The United States and Cuba. The actions that hurt their relationship the most between 1959-1961…
Tuesday 27th January
Born on the 16th of January 1901 in Orient province in Cuba.
Batista joined the army in 1912, and in 1933 he held the rank of sergent when he joined in a military coup against the liberal President Machado.
He was promoted to the rank of Colonel and became leader of a facist-inspired corporative state.
In 1937 he allowed the formation of rival political parties.
In 1935, one of Batista’s opponents (Antonio Guitaras) was murdered almost certainly…
The foreign policy of the United States to Cuba in the course of recent years has created numerous issues for the Cuban culture and its kin, and relations between the two countries have been conflicting for a considerable length of time because of the savage foreign policy stance of the United States to Cuba. The United States has considered Cuba as its foe since July 1960 when Fidel Castro's new revolutionary government changed everything. Castro seized exclusive land in Cuba, nationalized…
Cuba the communist island in the Caribbean Sea, with very hard life, with bright doctors, musician, baseball players, artist, actors, poets, writers, with traditional exportation like a Cuban or Habana cigarettes, and interesting people.
Cuban American culture came from Cuba a little island at North of Florida, Cuba is an island nation located on the northern of the Caribbean Sea, by the Antilles. To Cuba's east is the island of Hispaniola, shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic…
more than five years to return to hoist their flag in Cuba. Over half a century after the ceremony on Friday it will be for him as a "back home" that has been waiting almost a lifetime.
"It will be an emotional moment," said the former diplomat of 82 years in an interview with Efe.
Smith had worked at the US Embassy in Havana under three years when both countries broke relations in 1961, and later became head of the US Interests Section in Cuba, academic and foremost advocate of the need to dialogue…
Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution became the motive for many Cubans to leave their home and make Miami their new home. Cubans who migrated to the United States were not considered immigrants but rather exiles. Although immigrants came and continue to come to the United States in pursue of the American Dream, the Cubans were different. The main motive for many Cubans to leave their country was not in pursue of the American Dream but rather as an escape from the dictatorship of Fidel Castro and the…
perspective of the source:
Source A: Source A written by Alistair Cooke, gives us insight into an extreme American nationalist’s perspective on Fidel Castro. The source aims to inform readers about Castro’s new-found leadership role.
However, the publish date of Source A was “January 2nd 1959”. The day after Fulgencio Batista (Castro’s predecessor) fled Cuba for the Dominican Republic. America comprehensively supported Batista’s regime and alarm bells were certainly ringing throughout their country.…
notice. In April 1961; the U.S government funded an attempted overthrow of Cuban communist leaders known as the Bay of Pigs invasion. Even though the invasion had failed, Castro was now afraid of another invasion from the United States and wanted protection.
These causes ultimately lead to the Cuban missile Crisis; Khrushchev used Cuba, just 90 miles from the coast as a missile site to counter the missile site in Turkey, 150 miles from Russia, he proclaimed that the 60 mi difference is “nothing for…
WHAT CUBA HAS ACHIEVED
Interpreting the pluses and minuses of Cuba’s revolutionary experience can
be controversial, because Cuba is an inherently politicized topic.
The achievements (see Keen and Haynes, 2000: 447–448) are very impressive
and very real: By 1990, unemployment had been virtually wiped out;
Cuba’s rate was the lowest in Latin America. Income distribution is also the
fairest in Latin America. Rents were limited right after the revolution to 10
percent of one’s income. There are…