1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth - 19 years.
There are 5 main areas of development that are all very important from birth to 19 years old. They are: Physical Development – this area of development is about learning how to master physical movements. It is subdivided into: fine motor skills (such as tying shoe laces), gross motor movements (such as throwing a ball), locomotive movements (such as balancing and walking)Physical development allows children to gain independence.
Cognitive development – this area of development is also known as intellectual development. It is a huge area, as it encompasses the way in which the brain processes information. This development is strongly linked to communication and language development. Communication – this area of development is about learning to communicate with other people and understanding their communications. Talking, reading and writing and also use of gestures are all examples of skills that most children learn. Communication and language development are linked to cognitive development because more sophisticated communication involves thinking about what others are trying to convey as well as thinking about what I am trying to express.
Social and emotional development – this are of development is about relationship and also about understanding our self. Being able to feel sorry for someone, knowing what behaviour is acceptable and having the ability to control emotions are examples of skills that children learn. Moral development – this is a sub-set of social and emotional development with strong links to cognitive development. The development of morality is about the decisions that children and young people take, the principles that they adopt and their behaviour towards others.
Each child develops at their own rate, there is a sequence of development that progress from infancy to adulthood.
Social, Emotional, Behavioural and Moral development
At this stage is usually very rapid, At birth babies depend on reflexes for movements to enable them feed or grasp whenever they touch something. By age one; they have much more control over their bodies. They are beginning to crawl, shuffle, pulling or pushing on things to stand etc.
Between 1 and 2 years walking will begin and toys will be pulled or pushed along whilst walking.
They enjoy trying to feed themselves with finger foods. Waving goodbye becomes fun they will begin to point to what they want and shake their head to mean ‘no’.
Between the ages of 2 and 3 mark making on paper will progress to scribbles as they begin to use pencils etc. Balls start to be kicked and thrown. Bricks will be built into larger towers than before, and they will start to experiment with liquids in play by pouring.
Children start by recognising familiar voices; like parents voice and they stop crying when they hear them. They later begin to respond to smiles and make noises as well. By 18 months they are able to make one – two syllable words like mama; baba; dada; bye; bye-bye; out; etc. They have a vocabulary of 3 to 20 words, can join in simple rhymes and enjoy books. At age 3, they should have a vocabulary of about 300 words. They use more adult forms of speech, making proper sentences and are able to deliver simple messages.
Babies start by recognising parents and concentrating on familiar voices. Become aware of different smells. They put things in their mouth to explore. They respond to moving objects and respond to bright colours and bold images. They see everything in relation to themselves .
Between 18 months and 2 years they are able to recognise objects from pictures and books, point to what they want, match colours and shapes, do jigsaw puzzles, follow simple instructions, concentrate for longer, show preference and start to make choice.