What is Weaning?
For the first six months, breast or formula milk can provide all the energy and nutrients required for a growing infant. At around 6 months of age of a baby s solid foods is introduced which is called weaning and it is a time for a baby to experiment lots of different foods. Signs that a baby is ready for solid foods are shorter lengths of time between demands for food and still showing signs of hunger after full feed.
Many toddles struggles to eat large amount of foods at one mealtime so small meals equally throughout the day will work best. Offering different variety of tastes during weaning will encourage child to enjoy a rang e of foods. The first foods should be given in tiny amount to get baby used to new taste and to ensure that any foods that cause allergies can easily be identified. Baby rice and pureed fruits and vegetables are good first foods. By 12-18 months infants should be on a normal diet, but the food should be cut up and should be supervised in case of choking. At 12 month cow milk can be introduced but it should be full-fat, not skimmed or semi-skimmed, as it contain more calories. Young children need food those are high in calcium and protein, as they are growing fast and start to walk. Starchy carbohydrate foods such as bread, cereals, rice, pasta, potatoes, yams, sweet potatoes and plantains all form an important part of a toddler's diet. Salt should not be added in toddler's food. Children from age of 6 month to three should have no more than 2g per day because excessive amount of salt can cause kidney damage. Sugary foods and drinks should be limited in a toddler's diet because sugars are naturally present in fruit, vegetables and milk.
Daily energy and nutrient requirements: Energy (EAR)*
*EAR - Estimated Average Requirement
**RNI - Reference Nutrient Intake
Female adults during pregnancy:
Increased needs (eating for two): During pregnancy the expectant mothers’ metabolic rate is reduced and the body needs more energy that’s why pregnant women required more calories and nutrients than other women to provide for their growing baby. Pregnant women should take extra 200 calories per day. Increased requirement of nutrition can put pregnant women and unborn babies at risk of nutritional deficiencies if these demands are not met by diet. Taking extra amount of folic acid before conception or for three month of pregnancy can reduce the risks of neural tube defects and another key nutrient needed during pregnancy is iron which helps to make red blood cells for both mother and growing baby and calcium for the baby’s skeleton.
Changes in body of pregnant women can cause come temporary health problem like nausea, vomiting, heartburn, diabetes, indigestion and constipation. The intestinal muscles are more relaxed during pregnancy which causes constipation and nausea and vomiting are caused because during pregnancy the pregnancy hormone increased.
Foods to Avoid:
Liver: It is very high in level of vitamin A and too much of vitamin A can harm unborn baby.
Salmonella: Salmonella bacteria can cause food poison. It doesn’t usually harm the baby but if in severe case in a pregnant woman it can lead to miscarriage of labour. And also avoid raw seafood, such as sushi and oyster because they carry a risk of intestinal parasites. Alcohol and caffeine: It is best to control alcohol and caffeine during pregnancy. Excessive amount of alcohol can lead the baby being born with foetal alcohol syndrome and learning difficulties and high amount of caffeine can increase the risk of miscarriage in early pregnancy.
The effect of alcohol is most severe in the first months of pregnancy, when the baby’s organs are developing. Pregnant women should reduce their intake of