The concept of consciousness arises out of the experience of altered states of consciousness. An alteration in consciousness involves qualitative change in perceptual, cognitive and conative aspects. It involves alteration of meditational processes between stimulus and response. Altered states of consciousness can be induced by overstimulation, sensory deprivation or by altering body chemistry.
Criticisms of Structuralism by today’s scientific standards, the experimental methods used to study the structures of the mind were too subjective the use of introspection led to a lack of reliability in results. Other critics argue that structuralism was too concerned with internal behavior, which is not directly observable and cannot be accurately measure.
Post-structuralism tends to critique and deconstruct established systems, thereby showing the limitations and lack of meaning which is useful for analysis but does not aid much in creating reform, change, and renewal of structures.
As well, the idea of marginalization and alienation cannot exist within post-structural ideology because these ideas assume fairly rigid structuring and assumptions of insider groups and privilege. Thus structuralism gives us a better framework for social change.
As well, some form of structuring helps us organize and understand how the world works. For example, psychoanalytic theory comes from a structural model that assumes a three-component psychic system of ego, id, and super-ego --a structure which gives us a way of interpreting and understanding human behavior (whereas post-structuralism would challenge whether these categories exist at all or have any real meaning across cultures and experiences.)
Post-structuralism challenges the idea of binaries and opposites, which is a helpful distinction, yet for us to operate as humans in the world, some degree of structuralism that helps us understand meanings as generated by what something is NOT is the basic most fundamental way that we engage and interact with the world around us.
Like all binaries, we cannot say that it is a matter of choosing post-structuralism over structuralism as our worldview of choice, but rather we can use both as lenses which help us see both limitations and strengths of either perspective.
The strengths provide explanations for the smooth running of society. Looks closely at the role of each institution. The weakness does not address areas of conflict in society
Behaviorism: an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior.
In education, advocates of behaviorism have effectively adopted this system of rewards and punishments in their classrooms by rewarding desired behaviors and punishing inappropriate ones. Rewards vary, but must be important to the learner in