Some transnational corporations that produce chemicals deemed overly dangerous in the First World find a market in the Third World. There, governments cannot restrict usage of these chemicals because it would be too costly to citizens trying to make a living. Countries in Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia are the greatest victims of this environmental inequality. In addition to problems created by development and industrialization, poorer nations also suffer environmental difficulties caused by poverty and war, among other causes.
Many environmental problems arise in the Third World. Air pollution, water pollution , deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, and poisoning of the environment are among the largest of these. Third World nations are aware of these problems and are working to solve them. The United Nations and other international organizations have looked into preventing foreign companies from dumping waste in developing nations, making transnational corporations pay for the pollution they produce, and enlisting the First World in helping to clean up the Third World's environment.
These third world countries struggle with population growth, poverty, famines, and wars, their residents are discovering the environmental effects of these problems, in the form of increasing air, water, and land pollution. Pollution is almost unchecked in many developing nations, where Western nations dump toxic wastes and untreated sewage flows into rivers. Many times, the choice for Third World governments is between poverty and poison, and basic human needs like food, clothing, and shelter take precedence.
Industrialized nations often dump wastes in developing countries where there is little or no environmental regulation, and governments may collect considerable fees for accepting their garbage. In 1991, World Watch magazine reported that Western companies dumped more than 24 million tons (22 million metric tons) of hazardous waste in Africa alone during 1988. Companies can also export industrial hazards by moving their plants to countries with less restrictive pollution control laws than industrialized nations. This was the case with Union Carbine, which moved its chemical manufacturing plant to Bhopal, India, to manufacture a product it was not allowed to make in the United States. As Western nations enact laws promoting environmental and worker safety, more manufacturers have moved their hazardous and polluting factories to less developed countries, where there are little or no environmental or occupations laws, or no enforcement agencies. Hazardous industries such as textile, petrochemical, and chemical production, as well as smelting and electronics, have migrated to Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. For example, IBM, General Motors, and Sony have established manufacturing plants in Mexico, and some of these have created severe environmental problems. At least 10 million gal (38 million L) of the factories' raw sewage is discharged into the Tijuana River daily. Because pollution threatens San Diego beaches, most of the cleanup is paid for by the United States and California governments. Although consumers