Demographics: Demography and Higher Dependency Ratio Essay

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9) State the 4 social factors that have led to decline in death rates:
IMPROVED NUTRITION – Thomas McKewon (1972) argues that improved nutrition accounted for up to half of decline in death rates. However, he couldn’t answer why females lived longer than men even though they had less of the family food supply, or why measles and infant diarrhoea actually rose as nutrition improved.
MEDICAL IMPROVEMENTS – Played almost no part in decline in death rate. Tranter said how the levels of knowledge was so poor that death rates were more likely to rise than fall.
PUBLIC HEALTH MEASURES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENTS – more effective central and local governments made improvements in public health and quality of environment. These included, housing, purer drinking water, pasteurisation of milk, improved sewage disposal methods. Clean Air Acts reduced air pollution such as smog which was responsible for 4000 premature deaths in 5 days (1952).
OTHER SOCAL CHANGES: Decline of dangerous manual operations eg mining.
Smaller families = reduced rate of spreading infection
Greater public knowledge on causes of illness
Higher income = healthier lifestyle.

11) list several factors that have led to an aging population
Increasing life expectancy – people living longer
Decline in infant mortality – nowadays hardly anyone dies early in life
Decline in fertility – fewer young people being produced in relation to number of older people in population.
12) effects of an aging population:
Public services – older people consume larger proportion of health and social care groups.
One –person pensioner households – number of pensioners living alone has increased. Now account for 14% of all households.
Dependency ratio – non workings old are an economically dependent group. As number of retired people rises this increases dependency ratio and the burden on working population.…